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CHAPTER IX GENERAL STATISTICS
During the past twenty years the foreign trade of Argentina and Uruguay (especially that of the former country) has developed very largely and rapidly; its increase during the decade 1904-1913 being, in the case of Argentina, 108?% and in that of Uruguay 104%. The increase in both cases is considerably greater than that of the trade of any other South American country; as will be seen from the following figures:—
        $        
Argentina.     1913     996,215,998        
    1904     477,985,737        
    gold     518,230,261     108·5%     increase.
Uruguay.     1913     119,500,000        
    1904     58,481,343        
    Uruguayan     61,018,657     104%     ”
Chile.     1913     725,828,254        
    1904     370,149,864        
    Chilian     355,678,390     94·5%     ”
Brazil.     1913     1,976,733,388        
    1904     1,288,955,306        
    milreis     687,778,082     54%     ”

The figure $996,215,998 gold if divided by 7,731,257, representing the population of Argentina, gives $129 gold, or £25 11s. 10d., value of trade per inhabitant of that country; a very high figure indeed. The value of the trade of Uruguay per head of her population is £21 3s. 6d.

In 1913 Argentina alone provided the markets of the[128] United Kingdom with cereals and meat to the value of £34,500,000 of a total of £92,300,000, or nearly 37?% of its total supplies. During the same year Uruguay sent meat to the United Kingdom to the value of some £202,000 sterling.
UNITED KINGDOM IMPORTS IN 1913
Wheat     £     £
1.     From United States     13,953,072    
2.     ” Canada     8,803,949    
3.     ” British East Indies     7,998,552    
4.     ” Argentine Republic     6,149,195    
5.     ” Australia     4,426,629    
6.     ” Russia     1,984,964    
    ” Other countries     544,539     43,860,900
Maize        
1.     From Argentine Republic     10,851,874    
2.     ” United States     1,923,321    
3.     ” Russia     489,993    
4.     ” Roumania     286,600    
5.     ” Canada     64,773    
    ” Other countries     153,781     13,770,342
Linseed        
1.     From Argentine Republic     2,398,629    
2.     ” British East Indies     1,564,428    
3.     ” Russia     228,167    
4.     ” United States     98,366    
    ” Other countries     2,905,803     7,195,393
Chilled and Frozen Meat        
1.     From Argentine Republic     12,815,002    
2.     ” Australia     2,133,951    
3.     ” Uruguay     706,816    
4.     ” New Zealand     393,429    
5.     ” United States     3,119    
    ” Other countries     11,914     16,064,231
Frozen Mutton        
1.     From New Zealand     4,965,310    
2.     ” Australia     3,128,439    
3.     ” Argentine Republic     1,908,255    
4.     ” Uruguay     303,528    
    ” Other countries     293,133     10,598,665
Sundry Meats Frozen        
1.     From Argentine Republic     455,561    
2.     ” United States     155,966    
    ” Other countries     216,526     828,053
    Total         92,317,584

The value of the U.K. Imports from Argentine and Uruguay was considerably increased during 1915.

[129]

In 1913 values of the exports of the United Kingdom to the four most commercially important countries of South America were:—
    £ sterling.
To the Argentine Republic     23,430,246
” Brazil     13,015,769
” Chile     6,366,944
” Uruguay     3,027,568

Of the total value of the sales of the United Kingdom in the whole of South America, Argentina received 45%, amounting to £52,033,764 sterling.
POSITIONS HELD BY ARGENTINA AND URUGUAY RESPECTIVELY IN THE EXPORT TRADE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM ACCORDING TO BRITISH OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS, 1913.
Value of exports from Great Britain to:     £
1     East Indies     71,738,755
2     Germany     60,573,457
3     United States     59,536,352
4     France     40,876,731
5     Australasia     37,852,929
6     Russia     27,705,660
7     Canada     27,235,355
8     South Africa     24,373,018
9     Argentina     23,430,246
10     Belgium     20,667,519
11     Holland     20,605,137
12     Italy     15,620,393
13     China     15,016,023
14     Japan     14,837,948
15     Brazil     13,015,769
16     New Zealand     11,776,261
17     Egypt     9,966,948
18     Sweden     9,241,874
19     Spain     8,655,196
20     Turkey     7,992,712
21     West Africa     7,166,222
22     Norway     6,669,089
23     Chile     6,366,946
24     Denmark     6,340,773
25     Austria-Hungary     5,786,077
26     Switzerland     5,106,764
27     Portugal     3,935,802
28     Uruguay     3,027,568
29     West Indies     2,716,545
30     Greece     2,597,227
31     Mexico     2,549,265
32     East Africa     1,443,859
33     Costa Rica     247,093
Total including other countries     £635,117,134
        Population.     Per
capita £
1     New Zealand     1,028,160     11·45
2     Australasia     4,802,174     7·88
3     South Africa     5,973,394     4·08
4     Canada     7,758,000     3·51
5     Holland     6,114,302     3·37
6     Argentina     7,731,257     3·03
7     Belgium     7,571,387     2·73
8     Norway     2,437,646     2·73
9     Uruguay     1,112,000     2·72
10     Denmark     2,775,076     2·29
11     Chile     3,505,317     1·90
12     Sweden     5,638,583     1·62
13     West Indies     1,709,732     1·59
14     Switzerland     3,781,430     1·30
15     France     39,601,509     1·03
16     Greece     2,666,000     0·97
17     Germany     64,925,993     0·93
18     Egypt     11,287,359     0·88
19     Portugal     5,960,056     0·66
20     United States     91,972,266     0·65
21     Costa Rica     388,266     0·63
22     Brazil     23,070,969     0·55
23     East Africa     2,651,892     0·54
24     Italy     34,671,377     0·45
25     Spain     19,639,000     0·44
26     Turkey     21,273,900     0·38
27     West Africa     20,176,635     0·35
28     Japan     52,985,423     0·28
29     East Indies     315,156,396     0·23
30     Russia     171,059,900     0·16
31     Mexico     15,063,207     0·16
32     Austria-Hungary     49,458,421     0·12
33     China     320,650,000     0·05

[130]

During the five years 1908-1912 48?% of the whole maize imported by the United Kingdom came from Argentina; or only a little less than the total quantity of that imported from the United States, Roumania, Russia, India, Natal, Canada, Bulgaria and the Cape of Good Hope.

In respect of the total issue of Capital in the United Kingdom during the first six months of 1914, Argentina ranked first (with £12,809,200 as against £12,244,100 which went to Russia) among the foreign countries for which such issues were destined; and third if British Possessions are included in the comparison.
1913
THE TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA WITH THE REPUBLICS OF SOUTH AMERICA IS SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING TABLES COMPILED FROM AMERICAN OFFICIAL STATISTICS
    Imports

American
Dollars     Exports

American
Dollars     BALANCE OF TRADE
In favour of
U.S.A.
American
Dollars     Against
U.S.A.
American
Dollars
Argentine Republic     26,863,732     52,894,834     26,031,102     —
Uruguay     2,450,697     7,522,145     5,071,448     —
Guiana (British)     105,933     1,813,745     1,707,812     —
Bolivia     350     940,744     940,394     —
Guiana (French)     86,386     337,714     251,328     —
Paraguay     58,285     187,867     129,582     —
Falkland Islands     —     725     725     —
Brazil     120,155,855     42,638,467     —     77,517,388
Chile     27,655,420     16,076,763     —     11,578,657
Columbia     15,992,321     7,397,696     —     8,594,625
Venezuela     10,852,331     5,737,118     —     5,115,213
Peru     9,666,579     7,341,903     —     2,324,676
Ecuador     3,037,689     2,553,785     —     483,904
Guiana (Dutch)     821,460     704,487     —     116,973
    217,747,038     146,147,993     34,132,391     105,731,436

[131]
VALUE OF MERCHANDISE EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES TO THE REPUBLICS OF SOUTH AMERICA IN THE YEAR 1913, SHOWING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ARGENTINE MARKET
To the Argentine Republic     —     $52,894,834
” Brazil     $42,638,467    
” Uruguay     7,522,145    
” Ecuador     2,553,785    
” Paraguay     187,867     52,902,264
” Chile     16,076,763    
” Columbia     7,397,696    
” Peru     7,341,903    
” Venezuela     5,737,118    
” Guiana (British)     1,813,745    
” Bolivia     940,744    
” Guiana (Dutch)     704,487    
” Guiana (French)     337,714    
” Falkland Islands     725     40,350,895
Total value of sales to South America.     Dollars     146,147,993

The Argentine Republic received 36·2% of total.

Argentina and Brazil divide practically between them the South American export trade of the United States, Argentina taking by far the larger share, and well over one-third of the whole received by all the South American countries put together. The value of the Argentine imports from the United States in 1913 amounted to $52,894,834 (U.S.A.), while Uruguay took U.S.A. goods to the value of $6,531,626 (U.S.A.).
ARGENTINE IMPORTS FROM EUROPE, 1913

During the year 1913 the Argentine Republic purchased in Europe the following amounts:—
    $ gold.
In the United Kingdom     130,886,587
” Germany     71,311,628
” France     38,075,811
” Italy     34,789,741
” Belgium     21,953,910
” Spain     12,389,607
[132]” Austria-Hungary     5,933,444
” Holland     4,074,104
” Sweden     3,123,889
” Switzerland     2,749,682
” Portugal     585,975
” Russia     447,845
” Denmark     204,106
” Turkey     127,026
” Roumania, Bulgaria and Greece     119,989
    £64,835,981     =     gold     $326,773,344
Purchased in other
parts of the world     £18,765,714     =     ”     $94,579,199
Total     £83,601,695     =     ”     $421,352,543

Where will these purchases be made in the future?
GOLD (Argentina)
Years.     Imports.     Exports.     Balance.
1904     24,917,951     1,604,292     23,313,659
1905     32,559,540     819,375     31,740,165
1906     18,212,323     1,545,622     16,666,701
1907     23,552,726     3,133,886     20,418,840
1908     28,651,215     44,817     28,606,398
1909     67,453,816     1,247,831     66,205,985
1910     37,027,936     1,669,892     35,358,044
1911     12,764,236     3,008,597     9,755,639
1912     36,077,807     585,621     35,492,186
1913     47,941,425     43,417,484     4,523,941
$ gold     329,158,975     57,077,417     272,081,558
=     £65,309,320     11,324,884     53,984,436

It is regrettable, from several points of view, that the National Statistics of Uruguay are not kept and published with the same promptitude and regularity as those of Argentina, to say nothing of the admirable clearness of the forms in which the latter are issued. The Uruguayan authorities should really know that the absence of any complete scheme of statistical information regarding their country is more than apt to preserve a very common though erroneous impression that Uruguay can be of but little account since so little is known or heard of it. Little indeed is known with any accuracy of its production, outside the circle of persons directly interested in its trade; but this obscurity is due only to indifference to and negligence of the art of self-assertion.

[133]

International Trade of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay

[134]

In point of fact Uruguay might well be proud of the[135] statistics of her productivity; for, in reality, she has more cattle than and nearly as many sheep as the Argentine Province of Buenos Aires while her superficial area is only some two-thirds of that of that Province. Uruguay exports wool to the average value of some £4,000,000, hides £1,500,000, frozen and chilled meat £1,110,000, and animals on the hoof £230,000 annually. The value of its wheat exports for the five years ending 1910 has been stated at £730,000; flour £234,000, maize £82,000 and linseed £460,000 during the same period. As we have seen, the value of Uruguayan trade for the year 1913 was £23,900,000, and this figure, as well as those representing Cereal production and exports, are likely to be rapidly increased under normal conditions.
INCREASE OF ARGENTINE CEREAL EXPORTS IN TEN YEARS
    1904. $ gold.     1913. $ gold.
Wheat     66,947,891     102,631,143
Maize     44,391,196     112,292,394
Linseed     28,359,923     49,910,201
Oats     541,973     20,447,278
    140,240,983     285,281,016
INCREASE OF ARGENTINE MEAT EXPORTS IN TWENTY-NINE YEARS
    1885. $ gold.     1913. $ gold.
Live stock: cattle     2,345,313     6,848,830
” ” sheep     58,552     311,991
Chilled and frozen beef     1,680     36,622,889
Frozen mutton     75,323     3,674,206
Sundry meats frozen     —     910,311
” ”preserved     —     1,257,391
Extract of meat     —     1,598,136
Powdered meat     —     1,097,566
Preserved tongues     —     131,952
Condensed soup     —     375,392
Jerked beef     4,204,077     658,097
$ gold     6,684,945     53,486,761
=£     1,326,378     10,612,452

[136]
INCREASE OF TOTAL ARGENTINE EXPORTS IN TEN YEARS
        $ gold.
1904:     Total exports     264,157,525
1913:     ” ”     483,504,547
    Increase     219,347,022
INCREASE OF TOTAL URUGUAYAN EXPORTS IN EIGHT YEARS
During 1905 $ (Uruguayan)     30,774,247    
” 1912 ”     51,000,000    
Increase, say,     $20,226,000     = £4,303,000

Wool constitutes about nine-tenths of the exports of Uruguay.

Up to and including 1907 the Imports of Uruguay were in excess of her Exports. In 1908, however, the balance went the other way and is likely to remain there.

The excess of Exports over Imports in 1908 was valued at $2,840,206 (Uruguayan) and in 1909 at $7,966,658. In 1912 the Imports appear to have risen to $49,380,000 as against exports $51,000,000. Probably these last figures are roughly accurate; but the last year for which any full official Statistics appear to have been published was 1911.

As has already been seen, the chief countries of destination of Argentine Exports prior to the War were (generally in the following order): The United Kingdom, Germany, France, Belgium, Brazil, the United States, Holland and Italy. Those of Uruguay went chiefly to France, Belgium, Germany, Argentina and the United Kingdom. While Argentina Imported principally from the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, France, Italy, Belgium and Spain; and Uruguay from the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, France, Italy, Belgium and Argentina.

The Surplus of Revenue over Expenditure in both Republics may appear to remain always so small as only just to have avoided conversion into deficits. It should, however, be recollected that these countries are constantly[137] engaged in carrying out Public Works which are necessary to the fuller development of their natural resources; such, for instance, as the very important new Port Works of Buenos Aires and Montevideo and the great Argentine systems of irrigation. Were the excess of Revenue greater it would still be spent, and wisely spent, on National Public Works and Improvements; which are the best assurance of its future which either country could make.

An instance of the rapid Commercial progress of the River Plate Countries is the fact that whereas in 1872 there were but four Banks in Argentina, in 1913 there were 143.

The latest (1914) Commercial and Industrial Census of the City of Buenos Aires shows that the number of Commercial (chiefly wholesale and retail trading) establishments in that City has increased from 17,985, as shown by the previous Census of 1904, to 29,600—an increase of 65%—while the number of Factories and Manufacturing establishments which in 1904 was 8,877 was in 1914 11,132—an increase of 25%. The motive power employed in these last-mentioned establishments has increased during the same period from 19,458 h.p. to 194,411 h.p.—an increase of 900%—while the number of persons employed has increased 112%.

An amusing but characteristic note is struck by comparison of the figures representing the annual sales of flour and tobacco respectively, the former being nearly $48,000,000 (paper) and the latter nearly £44,000,000 (paper).

Not such a great difference between the money spent in Buenos Aires on flour, much of which is exported, and on tobacco, which is all home consumed! Another is that nearly 1% of the whole population of the City consists of Medical Men; Brokers and Commission Agents (clubbed together and classed as professional men by the Census) run them very close, with Builders a good third, and the rest, in the sporting sense, nowhere.

[138]

Most of the wholesale and retail traders are Italians, Spaniards and Argentines, in this order; the Italians being in both cases nearly three times and the Spaniards nearly twice as numerous as the Argentines. After them come French, Russians (chiefly Jewish), Levantines and Egyptians (locally known as “Turcos”), Uruguayans, German, British and other nationalities in commerce; and French, Russians, Levantines and Egyptians, Belgians, Danes and Portuguese and other nationalities as Manufacturers.

A good many establishments of both classes are, however, shown to belong to Argentines and foreigners in partnership.

It is due to the compilers of the Census to remark that they have treated “Jews” as pertaining to a separate nationality, though therefore there is possibly some confusion under the heading “Russians.”


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