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首页 » 经典英文小说 » The Economy of Workshop Mainipulation » CHAPTER X. MACHINERY FOR TRANSMITTING AND DISTRIBUTING POWER.
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CHAPTER X. MACHINERY FOR TRANSMITTING AND DISTRIBUTING POWER.
To construe the term "transmission of power" in its full sense, it will, when applied to machinery, include nearly all that has motion; for with the exception of the last movers, or where power passes off and is expended upon work that is performed, all machinery of whatever kind may be called machinery of transmission. Custom has, however, confined the use of the term to such devices as are employed to convey power from one place to another, without including organised machines through which power is directly applied to the performance of work. Power is transmitted by means of shafts, belts, friction wheels, gearing, and in some cases by water or air, as various conditions of the work to be performed may require. Sometimes such machinery is employed as the conditions do not require, because there is, perhaps, nothing of equal importance connected with mechanical engineering of which there exists a greater diversity of opinion, or in which there is a greater diversity of practice, than in devices for transmitting power.

I do not refer to questions of mechanical construction, although the remark might be true if applied in this sense, but to the kind of devices that may be best employed in certain cases.

It is not proposed at this time to treat of the construction of machinery for transmitting power, but to examine into the conditions that should determine which of the several plans of transmitting is best in certain cases—whether belts, gearing, or shafts should be employed, and to note the principles upon which they operate. Existing examples do not furnish data as to the advantages of the different plans for transmitting power, because a given duty may be successfully performed by belts, gearing, or shafts—even by water, air, or steam—and the comparative advantages of different means of transmission is not always an easy matter to determine.

Machinery of transmission being generally a part of the fixed plant of an establishment, experiments cannot be made to institute comparisons, as in the case of machines; besides, there are special or local considerations—such as noise, danger, freezing, and distance—to be taken into account, which prevent any rules of general application. Yet in every case it may be assumed that some particular plan of transmitting power is better than any other, and that plan can best be determined by studying, first, the principles of different kinds of mechanism and its adaptation to the special conditions that exist; and secondly, precedents or examples.

A leading principle in machinery of transmission that more than any other furnishes data for strength and proper proportions is, that the stress upon the machinery, whatever it may be, is inverse as the speed at which it moves. For example, a belt two inches wide, moving one thousand feet a minute, will theoretically perform the same work that one ten inches wide will do, moving at a speed of two hundred feet a minute; or a shaft making two hundred revolutions a minute will transmit four times as much power as a shaft making but fifty revolutions in the same time, the torsional strain being the same in both cases.

This proposition argues the expediency of reducing the proportions of mill gearing and increasing its speed, a change which has gradually been going on for fifty years past; but there are opposing conditions which make a limit in this direction, such as the speed at which bearing surfaces may run, centrifugal strain, jar, and vibration. The object is to fix upon a point between what high speed, light weight, cheapness of cost suggest, and what the conditions of practical use and endurance demand.

(1.) What does the term "machinery of transmission" include, as applied in common use?—(2.) Why cannot direct comparisons be made between shafts, belts, and gearing?—(3.) Define the relation between speed and strain in machinery of transmission.—(4.) What are the principal conditions which limit the speed of shafts?


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