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Book 3 Chapter 1 Notre-dame
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The church of Notre-Dame de Paris is still no doubt, a majestic1 and sublime2 edifice3. But, beautiful as it has been preserved in growing old, it is difficult not to sigh, not to wax indignant, before the numberless degradations4 and mutilations which time and men have both caused the venerable monument to suffer, without respect for Charlemagne, who laid its first stone, or for Philip Augustus, who laid the last.

On the face of this aged5 queen of our cathedrals, by the side of a wrinkle, one always finds a scar. ~Tempus edax, homo edacior*~; which I should be glad to translate thus: time is blind, man is stupid.

* Time is a devourer8; man, more so.

If we had leisure to examine with the reader, one by one, the diverse traces of destruction imprinted9 upon the old church, time's share would be the least, the share of men the most, especially the men of art, since there have been individuals who assumed the title of architects during the last two centuries.

And, in the first place, to cite only a few leading examples, there certainly are few finer architectural pages than this fa?ade, where, successively and at once, the three portals hollowed out in an arch; the broidered and dentated cordon11 of the eight and twenty royal niches12; the immense central rose window, flanked by its two lateral13 windows, like a priest by his deacon and subdeacon; the frail14 and lofty gallery of trefoil arcades15, which supports a heavy platform above its fine, slender columns; and lastly, the two black and massive towers with their slate6 penthouses, harmonious16 parts of a magnificent whole, superposed in five gigantic stories;--develop themselves before the eye, in a mass and without confusion, with their innumerable details of statuary, carving17, and sculpture, joined powerfully to the tranquil18 grandeur19 of the whole; a vast symphony in stone, so to speak; the colossal20 work of one man and one people, all together one and complex, like the Iliads and the Romanceros, whose sister it is; prodigious21 product of the grouping together of all the forces of an epoch22, where, upon each stone, one sees the fancy of the workman disciplined by the genius of the artist start forth23 in a hundred fashions; a sort of human creation, in a word, powerful and fecund24 as the divine creation of which it seems to have stolen the double character,--variety, eternity25.

And what we here say of the fa?ade must be said of the entire church; and what we say of the cathedral church of Paris, must be said of all the churches of Christendom in the Middle Ages. All things are in place in that art, self-created, logical, and well proportioned. To measure the great toe of the foot is to measure the giant.

Let us return to the fa?ade of Notre-Dame, as it still appears to us, when we go piously26 to admire the grave and puissant27 cathedral, which inspires terror, so its chronicles assert: ~quoe mole30 sua terrorem incutit spectantibus~.

Three important things are to-day lacking in that fa?ade: in the first place, the staircase of eleven steps which formerly31 raised it above the soil; next, the lower series of statues which occupied the niches of the three portals; and lastly the upper series, of the twenty-eight most ancient kings of France, which garnished32 the gallery of the first story, beginning with Childebert, and ending with Phillip Augustus, holding in his hand "the imperial apple."

Time has caused the staircase to disappear, by raising the soil of the city with a slow and irresistible33 progress; but, while thus causing the eleven steps which added to the majestic height of the edifice, to be devoured34, one by one, by the rising tide of the pavements of Paris,--time has bestowed35 upon the church perhaps more than it has taken away, for it is time which has spread over the fa?ade that sombre hue36 of the centuries which makes the old age of monuments the period of their beauty.

But who has thrown down the two rows of statues? who has left the niches empty? who has cut, in the very middle of the central portal, that new and bastard37 arch? who has dared to frame therein that commonplace and heavy door of carved wood, à la Louis XV., beside the arabesques38 of Biscornette? The men, the architects, the artists of our day.

And if we enter the interior of the edifice, who has overthrown39 that colossus of Saint Christopher, proverbial for magnitude among statues, as the grand hall of the Palais de Justice was among halls, as the spire28 of Strasbourg among spires29? And those myriads40 of statues, which peopled all the spaces between the columns of the nave41 and the choir42, kneeling, standing43, equestrian44, men, women, children, kings, bishops46, gendarmes47, in stone, in marble, in gold, in silver, in copper48, in wax even,--who has brutally49 swept them away? It is not time.

And who substituted for the ancient gothic altar, splendidly encumbered50 with shrines51 and reliquaries, that heavy marble sarcophagus, with angels' heads and clouds, which seems a specimen52 pillaged53 from the Val-de-Grace or the Invalides? Who stupidly sealed that heavy anachronism of stone in the Carlovingian pavement of Hercandus? Was it not Louis XIV., fulfilling the request of Louis XIII.?

And who put the cold, white panes54 in the place of those windows," high in color, "which caused the astonished eyes of our fathers to hesitate between the rose of the grand portal and the arches of the apse? And what would a sub-chanter of the sixteenth century say, on beholding55 the beautiful yellow wash, with which our archiepiscopal vandals have desmeared their cathedral? He would remember that it was the color with which the hangman smeared56 "accursed" edifices57; he would recall the H?tel du Petit-Bourbon, all smeared thus, on account of the constable's treason. "Yellow, after all, of so good a quality," said Sauval, "and so well recommended, that more than a century has not yet caused it to lose its color." He would think that the sacred place had become infamous58, and would flee.

And if we ascend59 the cathedral, without mentioning a thousand barbarisms of every sort,--what has become of that charming little bell tower, which rested upon the point of intersection60 of the cross-roofs, and which, no less frail and no less bold than its neighbor (also destroyed), the spire of the Sainte-Chapelle, buried itself in the sky, farther forward than the towers, slender, pointed61, sonorous62, carved in open work. An architect of good taste amputated it (1787), and considered it sufficient to mask the wound with that large, leaden plaster, which resembles a pot cover.

'Tis thus that the marvellous art of the Middle Ages has been treated in nearly every country, especially in France. One can distinguish on its ruins three sorts of lesions, all three of which cut into it at different depths; first, time, which has insensibly notched63 its surface here and there, and gnawed64 it everywhere; next, political and religious revolution, which, blind and wrathful by nature, have flung themselves tumultuously upon it, torn its rich garment of carving and sculpture, burst its rose windows, broken its necklace of arabesques and tiny figures, torn out its statues, sometimes because of their mitres, sometimes because of their crowns; lastly, fashions, even more grotesque65 and foolish, which, since the anarchical and splendid deviations66 of the Renaissance67, have followed each other in the necessary decadence68 of architecture. Fashions have wrought69 more harm than revolutions. They have cut to the quick; they have attacked the very bone and framework of art; they have cut, slashed70, disorganized, killed the edifice, in form as in the symbol, in its consistency71 as well as in its beauty. And then they have made it over; a presumption72 of which neither time nor revolutions at least have been guilty. They have audaciously adjusted, in the name of "good taste," upon the wounds of gothic architecture, their miserable73 gewgaws of a day, their ribbons of marble, their pompons of metal, a veritable leprosy of egg-shaped ornaments74, volutes, whorls, draperies, garlands, fringes, stone flames, bronze clouds, pudgy cupids, chubby- cheeked cherubim, which begin to devour7 the face of art in the oratory75 of Catherine de Medicis, and cause it to expire, two centuries later, tortured and grimacing76, in the boudoir of the Dubarry.

Thus, to sum up the points which we have just indicated, three sorts of ravages77 to-day disfigure Gothic architecture. Wrinkles and warts78 on the epidermis79; this is the work of time. Deeds of violence, brutalities, contusions, fractures; this is the work of the revolutions from Luther to Mirabeau. Mutilations, amputations, dislocation of the joints80, "restorations"; this is the Greek, Roman, and barbarian81 work of professors according to Vitruvius and Vignole. This magnificent art produced by the Vandals has been slain82 by the academies. The centuries, the revolutions, which at least devastate83 with impartiality84 and grandeur, have been joined by a cloud of school architects, licensed85, sworn, and bound by oath; defacing with the discernment and choice of bad taste, substituting the ~chicorées~ of Louis XV. for the Gothic lace, for the greater glory of the Parthenon. It is the kick of the ass10 at the dying lion. It is the old oak crowning itself, and which, to heap the measure full, is stung, bitten, and gnawed by caterpillars86.

How far it is from the epoch when Robert Cenalis, comparing Notre-Dame de Paris to the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus, *so much lauded87 by the ancient pagans*, which Erostatus *has* immortalized, found the Gallic temple "more excellent in length, breadth, height, and structure."*

* _Histoire Gallicane_, liv. II. Periode III. fo. 130, p. 1.

Notre-Dame is not, moreover, what can be called a complete, definite, classified monument. It is no longer a Romanesque church; nor is it a Gothic church. This edifice is not a type. Notre-Dame de Paris has not, like the Abbey of Tournus, the grave and massive frame, the large and round vault88, the glacial bareness, the majestic simplicity89 of the edifices which have the rounded arch for their progenitor90. It is not, like the Cathedral of Bourges, the magnificent, light, multiform, tufted, bristling91 efflorescent product of the pointed arch. Impossible to class it in that ancient family of sombre, mysterious churches, low and crushed as it were by the round arch, almost Egyptian, with the exception of the ceiling; all hieroglyphics93, all sacerdotal, all symbolical95, more loaded in their ornaments, with lozenges and zigzags96, than with flowers, with flowers than with animals, with animals than with men; the work of the architect less than of the bishop45; first transformation97 of art, all impressed with theocratic98 and military discipline, taking root in the Lower Empire, and stopping with the time of William the Conqueror99. Impossible to place our Cathedral in that other family of lofty, aerial churches, rich in painted windows and sculpture; pointed in form, bold in attitude; communal100 and bourgeois101 as political symbols; free, capricious, lawless, as a work of art; second transformation of architecture, no longer hieroglyphic94, immovable and sacerdotal, but artistic102, progressive, and popular, which begins at the return from the crusades, and ends with Louis IX. Notre-Dame de Paris is not of pure Romanesque, like the first; nor of pure Arabian race, like the second.

It is an edifice of the transition period. The Saxon architect completed the erection of the first pillars of the nave, when the pointed arch, which dates from the Crusade, arrived and placed itself as a conqueror upon the large Romanesque capitals which should support only round arches. The pointed arch, mistress since that time, constructed the rest of the church. Nevertheless, timid and inexperienced at the start, it sweeps out, grows larger, restrains itself, and dares no longer dart103 upwards104 in spires and lancet windows, as it did later on, in so many marvellous cathedrals. One would say that it were conscious of the vicinity of the heavy Romanesque pillars.

However, these edifices of the transition from the Romanesque to the Gothic, are no less precious for study than the pure types. They express a shade of the art which would be lost without them. It is the graft105 of the pointed upon the round arch.

Notre-Dame de Paris is, in particular, a curious specimen of this variety. Each face, each stone of the venerable monument, is a page not only of the history of the country, but of the history of science and art as well. Thus, in order to indicate here only the principal details, while the little Red Door almost attains106 to the limits of the Gothic delicacy107 of the fifteenth century, the pillars of the nave, by their size and weight, go back to the Carlovingian Abbey of Saint-Germain des Prés. One would suppose that six centuries separated these pillars from that door. There is no one, not even the hermetics, who does not find in the symbols of the grand portal a satisfactory compendium108 of their science, of which the Church of Saint-Jacques de la Boucherie was so complete a hieroglyph92. Thus, the Roman abbey, the philosophers' church, the Gothic art, Saxon art, the heavy, round pillar, which recalls Gregory VII., the hermetic symbolism, with which Nicolas Flamel played the prelude109 to Luther, papal unity110, schism111, Saint-Germain des Prés, Saint-Jacques de la Boucherie,--all are mingled113, combined, amalgamated114 in Notre-Dame. This central mother church is, among the ancient churches of Paris, a sort of chimera116; it has the head of one, the limbs of another, the haunches of another, something of all.

We repeat it, these hybrid117 constructions are not the least interesting for the artist, for the antiquarian, for the historian. They make one feel to what a degree architecture is a primitive118 thing, by demonstrating (what is also demonstrated by the cyclopean vestiges119, the pyramids of Egypt, the gigantic Hindoo pagodas) that the greatest products of architecture are less the works of individuals than of society; rather the offspring of a nation's effort, than the inspired flash of a man of genius; the deposit left by a whole people; the heaps accumulated by centuries; the residue120 of successive evaporations of human society,--in a word, species of formations. Each wave of time contributes its alluvium, each race deposits its layer on the monument, each individual brings his stone. Thus do the beavers121, thus do the bees, thus do men. The great symbol of architecture, Babel, is a hive.

Great edifices, like great mountains, are the work of centuries. Art often undergoes a transformation while they are pending122, ~pendent opera interrupta~; they proceed quietly in accordance with the transformed art. The new art takes the monument where it finds it, incrusts itself there, assimilates it to itself, develops it according to its fancy, and finishes it if it can. The thing is accomplished123 without trouble, without effort, without reaction,--following a natural and tranquil law. It is a graft which shoots up, a sap which circulates, a vegetation which starts forth anew. Certainly there is matter here for many large volumes, and often the universal history of humanity in the successive engrafting of many arts at many levels, upon the same monument. The man, the artist, the individual, is effaced124 in these great masses, which lack the name of their author; human intelligence is there summed up and totalized. Time is the architect, the nation is the builder.

Not to consider here anything except the Christian125 architecture of Europe, that younger sister of the great masonries of the Orient, it appears to the eyes as an immense formation divided into three well-defined zones, which are superposed, the one upon the other: the Romanesque zone*, the Gothic zone, the zone of the Renaissance, which we would gladly call the Greco-Roman zone. The Roman layer, which is the most ancient and deepest, is occupied by the round arch, which reappears, supported by the Greek column, in the modern and upper layer of the Renaissance. The pointed arch is found between the two. The edifices which belong exclusively to any one of these three layers are perfectly126 distinct, uniform, and complete. There is the Abbey of Jumiéges, there is the Cathedral of Reims, there is the Sainte-Croix of Orleans. But the three zones mingle112 and amalgamate115 along the edges, like the colors in the solar spectrum127. Hence, complex monuments, edifices of gradation and transition. One is Roman at the base, Gothic in the middle, Greco-Roman at the top. It is because it was six hundred years in building. This variety is rare. The donjon keep of d'Etampes is a specimen of it. But monuments of two formations are more frequent. There is Notre-Dame de Paris, a pointed-arch edifice, which is imbedded by its pillars in that Roman zone, in which are plunged128 the portal of Saint-Denis, and the nave of Saint-Germain des Prés. There is the charming, half-Gothic chapter-house of Bocherville, where the Roman layer extends half way up. There is the cathedral of Rouen, which would be entirely129 Gothic if it did not bathe the tip of its central spire in the zone of the Renaissance.**

* This is the same which is called, according to locality, climate, and races, Lombard, Saxon, or Byzantine. There are four sister and parallel architectures, each having its special character, but derived130 from the same origin, the round arch.

~Facies non omnibus una, No diversa tamen, qualem~, etc.

Their faces not all alike, nor yet different, but such as the faces of sisters ought to be.

** This portion of the spire, which was of woodwork, is precisely131 that which was consumed by lightning, in 1823.

However, all these shades, all these differences, do not affect the surfaces of edifices only. It is art which has changed its skin. The very constitution of the Christian church is not attacked by it. There is always the same internal woodwork, the same logical arrangement of parts. Whatever may be the carved and embroidered132 envelope of a cathedral, one always finds beneath it--in the state of a germ, and of a rudiment133 at the least--the Roman basilica. It is eternally developed upon the soil according to the same law. There are, invariably, two naves134, which intersect in a cross, and whose upper portion, rounded into an apse, forms the choir; there are always the side aisles135, for interior processions, for chapels136,--a sort of lateral walks or promenades137 where the principal nave discharges itself through the spaces between the pillars. That settled, the number of chapels, doors, bell towers, and pinnacles138 are modified to infinity139, according to the fancy of the century, the people, and art. The service of religion once assured and provided for, architecture does what she pleases. Statues, stained glass, rose windows, arabesques, denticulations, capitals, bas-reliefs,--she combines all these imaginings according to the arrangement which best suits her. Hence, the prodigious exterior140 variety of these edifices, at whose foundation dwells so much order and unity. The trunk of a tree is immovable; the foliage141 is capricious.

 

巴黎圣母院这座教堂如今依旧是庄严宏伟的建筑。它虽然日渐老去,却依旧是非常美丽。但是人们仍然不免愤慨和感叹,看到时间和人使那可敬的纪念性建筑遭受了无数损伤和破坏,既不尊重给它放上第一块石头的查理曼大帝,也不把给它放上最后一块石头的菲立浦·奥古斯特皇帝放在眼里。

在这位教堂皇后衰老的面部,我们经常在一条皱纹旁边发现一个伤疤。

“Tempus edax ,homo edacior。”我们不妨把这句拉丁文译成“时间盲目,人类愚蠢”。

假若我们有工夫同读者去一一观察这座古代教堂身上的各种创伤,我们就可以看出,时间带给它的创伤,还不如人——尤其那些搞艺术的人——带给它的多呢。我说“搞艺术的人”,这是最恰当不过的,因为最近两个世纪以来,有些家伙竟然号称建筑艺术家。

先举几个比较显著的例子吧。确实很少有别的建筑比得上它的前墙那么漂亮。那三个挖成尖拱形的大门道,那一排有二十八位穿着旧的绣花长袍的君王的神龛,正中间有个巨大的玫瑰花饰圆窗洞,两旁各有一个小窗护卫着,就象祭师和助祭师陪伴着神甫一样。那高大而秀气的三叶形回廊,它的平顶被一些小柱子支撑着。最后还有那两座黝黑笨重的巨大钟塔,连同它们那石板的屋檐,在整体的宏伟中又各各协调,依次分为五大层展现在你的眼前,虽然拥挤却并不混乱,连同无数的雕刻、塑像以及雕镂装饰,很适合它整体的庄严伟大。可以说是一部规模宏大的石头交响乐。它是人类和民族的巨大工程,它也象它的姐妹《伊利亚特》和《罗曼赛罗》这两篇杰作一样,整个建筑既单一又复杂。它是整个时代各种力量的奇特的产物,从每块石头上可以看出,有水平的工匠在艺术家天才的启发下把神奇变成了现实。总之,它是人类的一种创造,象神的创造一样又有力又丰富,仿佛具备着两重性格:既永恒又多变。

我们所讲的关于这座教堂的前墙的这些情况,实际上应该说整座教堂都是这样。我们所说的关于这座巴黎大教堂的情况,实际上应该说中世纪所有的基督教教堂都是这样。这类艺术所保持的一切都存在于它本身,合乎逻辑而又自成比例。量一量巨人的脚趾,也就等于量巨人的全身了。

还是来说圣母院的前墙吧,就照它如今呈现在我们眼前的情况来说吧。

当我们正要虔诚地瞻仰这座庄严宏伟的大教堂的时候,它却象某些编年史家所说的:“用它的庞大把观众吓住了。”

它的前墙如今早已失去三件重要东西。第一件是往昔把它从地基加高的那十一级阶梯;第二件是三个大门道下部的壁龛里成排的塑像;第三件是二楼回廊上的二十八位法国古代君王的塑像,从西尔得倍尔到手里拿着帝国疆域球仪的菲立浦·奥古斯特。

是时间把旧城区的地平线不可抗拒地慢慢升高,使得那座阶梯消失不见了。巴黎路面的这种升高的浪潮,虽然把那使教堂显得更加巍峨宏伟的十一级阶梯逐渐吞没,但时间所给予它的,也许倒要比从它夺去的多些。把那种经历了几个世纪的幽暗色调给了它的前墙,使它的老年处于最美丽时期的,正是时间。

然而,把那两排塑像打坏了的是谁?把那些壁龛弄空了的是谁?在中央那个大门道的正当中修了一个新的粗劣尖拱的是谁?胆敢在比斯戈耐特的阿拉伯花纹旁边筑起了这道笨重难看的路易十五式木雕门的是谁?那是人,是建筑师们,是我们这一代的艺术家们。

假若我们走进这座建筑里面去看看,又是谁把巨大的克利斯朵夫的塑像翻倒了的?它是同类型像中公认的典范,正如殿堂中的皇宫大殿,钟塔里的斯特拉斯堡尖塔一样。还有,在教堂的本堂和唱诗室里,在许多柱子之间那千万个小雕像,有跪着的,站着的,骑马的,有男人、女人、儿童、帝王、主教和警察,有石头刻的,大理石刻的,有用金、银、铜甚至蜜蜡制造的。

把它们粗鲁地毁掉了的是谁?那并不是时间。

是谁把那富丽堂皇的堆满了圣龛和圣物龛的哥特式祭坛,换成了刻着天使的头颅和片片云彩的笨重的大理石棺材,使它看起来就象慈惠谷女修院或残废军人疗养院拆散了的模型一样?是谁把刻错了年代的笨重的石头,嵌进了艾尔康居斯修筑的加洛林王朝的石板路?难道不是路易十四为了完成路易十三的宿愿才这样干的吗?

是谁用一些冷冰冰的白色玻璃窗,代替了大门道顶上的圆花窗和半圆形后殿之间的那些曾令我们父辈目眩神迷的“色彩浓艳”的玻璃窗?要是十六世纪的唱经人看到我们那些汪达尔大主教们用来粉刷他们的大教堂的黄色灰粉,又会怎么说呢?他会想起那是刽子手涂在牢房里的那种颜色,他会想起小波旁宫由于皇室总管的叛变也给刷上了那种颜色。“那毕竟是一种质量很好的黄粉”,正如索瓦尔所说,“这种粉真是名不虚传,一百多年也没能使它掉色。”唱经人会认为那神圣的地方已经变成不洁的场所,因而逃跑开去。

假若我们不在数不清的野蛮迹象上停留,径直走上这座大教堂的屋顶,人们把那挺立在楼廊交点处的可爱的小钟楼弄成什么样子了?这座小钟楼的纤细和大胆不亚于旁边圣礼拜堂的尖顶(同样也毁坏了),它比旁边的两座钟塔更加突出在天空下,挺拔、尖峭、剔透而且钟声洪亮。它在一七八七年被一位具有“好鉴赏力”的建筑师截断了,他认为只要用一大张锅盖似的铅皮把伤痕遮住就行啦。

中世纪的卓绝艺术就是这样在各国被处置,尤其是在法国。我们从它们的遗迹上,可以看出它们遭受的三种伤害以及受害的三种不同程度:首先是时间,它使得教堂到处都有轻微的坼裂,并且剥蚀了它的表面。其次是政治和宗教的改革,它们以特有的疯狂和愤怒向它冲去,剥掉它到处是塑像和雕刻的华丽外衣,打破它的圆花窗,扭断它的链条式花纹,有的是阿拉伯式的,有的是一串肖像;捣毁它的塑像,有时是出于宗教的因素,有时是出于政治的因素。最后是那些越来越笨拙荒诞的时新样式,它们那从“文艺复兴”以来的杂乱而华丽的倾向,在建筑艺术的必然衰败过程中代代相因。时新样式所给它的损害,比改革所给它的还要多。这些样式彻头彻尾地伤害了它,破坏了艺术的枯瘦的骨架,截断,斫伤,肢解,消灭了这座教堂,使它的形体不合逻辑,不美观,失去了象征性。随后,人们又重新去修建它。

时间和改革至少还没有如此放肆,凭着那种“好鉴赏力”,它们无耻地在这座哥特式建筑的累累伤痕上装饰着短暂的毫无艺术趣味的东西,那些大理石纽带和那些金属的球状装饰,那些相当恶劣的椭圆形、涡形、螺旋形,那些帷幔,那些花饰,那些流苏,那些石刻的火焰、铜铸的云彩、肥胖的爱神以及浮肿的小天使,所有这一切,使得卡特琳·德·梅迪西的祈祷室的装饰失去了艺术价值,而在两个世纪之后,在杜巴依的客厅里,艺术又备受折磨,变得奇形怪状而终于一命呜呼。

这样,把我们指出的几个方面总括起来,导致哥特式艺术改变模样的破坏就可以分为三种。那些表面上的坼裂和伤痕,是时间造成的;那些粗暴毁坏,挫伤和折断的残酷痕迹,是从路德到米拉波时期的改革改成的;那些割裂,截断,使它骨节支离以后又予以复原的行为,是教授们为了模仿维特依维尔和韦略尔那种野蛮的希腊罗马式工程所造成的;汪达尔人所创造的卓越艺术,学院派把它消灭了。在时间和改革的破坏之后(它们的破坏至少还是公平的和比较光明正大的),这座教堂就同继之而来的一大帮有专利权的、宣过誓的建筑师们结了缘,他们用趣味低劣的鉴赏力和选择去伤害它,用路易十五的菊苣形去替代那具有巴特农神殿光荣色彩的哥特式花边。这真象驴子的脚踢在一头快死的狮子身上。这真象是老橡树长出了冠冕一般的密叶,由于丰茂,青虫就去螫它,把它咬伤,把它扯碎。

那个时代已经是多么遥远!罗贝尔·塞那里曾经把那个时代的巴黎圣母院和艾法斯著名的狄安娜神庙相比(那座神庙曾令“古代异教徒赞不绝口”,曾使艾罗斯特拉特因之留名于世),认为这座高卢人的大教堂“在长度、高度、宽度和结构方面,都比那座神庙更为卓绝。”

然而巴黎圣母院决不能称为一座完整的建筑,无法确定它属于什么类型。它既不是一座罗曼式教堂,也不是一座哥特式教堂。这座教堂不只属于一种类型。巴黎圣母院不象杜尔尼斯大寺院,它根本没有那种笨重建筑物的宽度,没有又大又圆的拱顶,没有那种冷冰冰、空荡荡,那种环形圆拱建筑物的庄严简朴。它也不象布尔日大教堂,不是那种华丽而轻浮、杂乱而多样的高耸入云的尖拱化建筑。不可能把它算在那些幽暗、神秘、低矮、仿佛被圆拱压垮了的古代建筑之列,这些教堂的天花板接近埃及的风格,一切都是难以理解的,一切都是祭典式的,一切都是象征式的。在那里,菱形和锯齿形的图案要比花的图案多,而花的图案比鸟兽的图案多,鸟兽图案又比人像多。与其说它们是建筑家的作品,不如说它们是主教的作品。这是艺术的第一类变种,处处流露着始于西罗马帝国而终于征服者居约姆的神权政治和军国主义的精神。也不可能把我们这座教堂列入另一些教堂里面,它们高耸入云,有着很多彩绘大玻璃窗和雕刻,形状尖峭,姿态大胆。这些教堂作为政治的象征散发着市镇和市民的气息,而在艺术方面又奇幻奔放,富于自由的色彩。这艺术的第二个变种,它的时期是从十字军东征归来开始到路易十一王朝为止,已不再是难以理解的、进步的、平民化的建筑了。巴黎圣母院既不象第一种类型的教堂那样纯粹是罗马式的,也不象第二种类型的教堂那样纯粹是阿拉伯式的。

它是一座过渡时期的建筑。沙克逊族的建筑家们给它竖起了本堂的第一批柱子,十字军东征带来的尖拱形,象征服者一般高踞在支撑环形圆拱的那些粗大的罗曼式柱子的顶端。尖拱从此就成了主要角色,构成教堂的其余部分。然而它起先还只是不熟练地、胆怯地约束着自己,逐渐地有所发展和扩大,但还不敢象后来在许多奇特的教堂里那样,突然变得象箭和柳叶刀那样尖峭。这可能是受了近旁那些笨重的罗曼式柱子的影响吧。

并且这种从罗曼式过渡到哥特式的建筑,和那两种单纯的样式同样值得研究。它们体现了艺术的某种色调变化,没有这些差异就谈不上什么艺术色调。这就是尖拱和圆拱的结合度。

巴黎圣母院尤其是这种变化的一个奇特的标本。这座可敬的纪念性建筑的每一面、每块石头,都不仅载入了我国的历史,而且载入了科学史和艺术史。我们不妨在这里举出主要的几处来吧:当小红门已经接近十五世纪精致的哥特式艺术的最好水平的时候,本堂里那些柱子却由于体积和重量,又把你带回到圣日尔曼·代·勃雷教堂的加洛林式修道院的时代去了。人们会认为那种小红门和那些柱子之间存在着六百年的差距呢。即使是炼金家们,在大门道的象征性图案里也找不到一种能满足他们那种科学所需要的解答,所以圣雅克·德·拉·布谢里教堂对他们来说,同样是那样难以理解。因此,这种罗曼式寺院,这种具有哲学意味的教堂,这种哥特式艺术,这种沙克逊艺术,这种使人想起格雷果瓦七世的笨重的圆柱子,这种成为路德先驱的尼古拉·弗拉梅尔的神秘的象征主义,教皇权力的统一和分裂,圣日尔曼· 代·勃雷教堂,圣雅克·德·拉·布谢里教堂,所有这些,通通融化,结合,混杂在这座圣母院里了。巴黎古老教堂里最中心的这座教堂象一只怪兽,它的头象是这一座教堂的,四肢是那一座教堂的,臀部又是另一座的,它是所有教堂的综合。

我们重申,这种混杂的构造,在艺术家、考古家和历史家看来是不乏兴味的。这些建筑物使人感到建筑艺术在某一点上是原始的东西,它表现出来的,就象古希腊的大型石建筑遗迹、埃及金字塔以及印度巨塔表现出来的一样,那就是:最伟大的建筑物大半是社会的产物而不是个人的产物。与其说它们是天才的创作,不如说它们是劳苦大众的艺术结晶。它们是民族的宝藏,世纪的积累,是人类社会才华不断升华所留下的残渣。总之,它们是一种岩层。每个时代的浪潮都给它们增添冲积土,每一代人都在这座纪念性建筑上铺上他们自己的一层土,每个人都在它上面放上自己的一块石。海狸和蜜蜂是这样做的,人类也是这样做的。建筑艺术的伟大标本巴别塔就是一个大蜂窝。

那些大教堂一如那些大山,同样是世纪的产物。往往在艺术已经改变时,他们却依然如故。但它们平静地随着改变了的艺术继续修建下去。新的建筑艺术抓住自己所能找到的纪念性建筑,就把自己和它镶嵌在一起,与它同化,按照自己的想象力来把它加以发展,要是可能的话,它就让工程进行到底。

就这样,事物按照一条自然而平静的规律,无所阻挠地、不费力地、没有反抗地实现了。它是一个突然长出来的接枝,一股环流树身的树浆,是再一次的生根发芽。这种在同一座建筑上几种不同的艺术向几个不同高度的发展,真可以写成好几本长篇巨著,而且往往是人类的通史。人、艺术家、个人在这些大建筑物上并没有留下自己的姓名,而人类的智慧却在那里凝聚,集中起来。时间就是建筑师,而人民就是泥瓦匠。

我们在这里只谈到欧洲基督教的建筑艺术,这位东方伟大泥水工程的妹妹,它看起来象巨大的岩层,明显地分为三个部分而又互相重叠,这就是罗曼层、哥特层和文艺复兴层——我们更情愿称之为希腊罗马层。罗曼层是最古最深的一层,它被环形圆拱占据着,这种环形圆拱被希腊式的柱子支撑着,在处于上层的近代的文艺复兴层中再现。而尖拱则处于两层之间。只属于三层中任何一层的那些建筑物是很容易被认出来的,它们单一而又完整。耶米埃日大寺院、兰斯的大教堂、奥尔良的神圣十字架都是这一类型。但那三层的边沿部分却互相混杂,就象太阳的七种色彩互相混杂一样。因此就产生了那些复杂的纪念性建筑和那些各具特色的过渡性建筑。有种建筑物是下部为罗曼式、中部为哥特式、头部为希腊罗马式,人们花了六百年才把它建成。

这种类型的建筑真是罕见,艾达普的主塔就是一个标本。但是两重构造的建筑就比较常见了,例如巴黎圣母院这座尖拱形的建筑,它最初的几根柱子扎在罗曼层里,和圣德尼教堂的大门道和圣日尔曼·代·勃雷教堂的本堂一样。

又如波歇韦尔的可爱的半哥特式大厅,它的罗曼层一直伸展到中部。卢昂的大教堂也是如此,要是它不把它那中央钟楼尖顶的尖端插进文艺复兴层里去的话,它就完全是哥特式的了。

再说,如此种种不同的色度和差异,也都只存在于那些建筑的表面,是艺术改变了它们的外表。基督教教堂的结构本身并没有受到影响,内部的骨架和各部分合乎逻辑的配置还是依旧。不管一座大教堂的有雕刻有花饰的外表是什么样子,我们仍旧可以在它的内部找到古罗马教堂的雏型。它们永远按照同一个规律在地面上发展。两个教堂不偏不斜地互相交叉成十字形,顶端后部成半圆状,形成唱诗室。总是那些侧面的过道来作为内部的通路,通往小礼拜堂,这是教堂内部散步的地方,它是由那个主要本堂的两侧构成的,是由许多柱子分隔开的通道。一定数量的小礼拜堂、大门道、钟楼和尖顶,随着世纪、人民与艺术的想象力,全部进行了安排,而且不断地有所变化。

每当宗教仪式经过准备而确定下来,建筑艺术就去尽善尽美地把它实现。它把塑像、彩绘大玻璃窗、圆花窗、阿拉伯花纹、齿形雕刻、柱子和浮雕,协调地组合在一起。因此,在那些建筑物外表不可思议的千变万化之中,却依然存在着秩序和一致。树干总是一成不变,树叶却时落时生。


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 majestic GAZxK     
adj.雄伟的,壮丽的,庄严的,威严的,崇高的
参考例句:
  • In the distance rose the majestic Alps.远处耸立着雄伟的阿尔卑斯山。
  • He looks majestic in uniform.他穿上军装显得很威风。
2 sublime xhVyW     
adj.崇高的,伟大的;极度的,不顾后果的
参考例句:
  • We should take some time to enjoy the sublime beauty of nature.我们应该花些时间去欣赏大自然的壮丽景象。
  • Olympic games play as an important arena to exhibit the sublime idea.奥运会,就是展示此崇高理念的重要舞台。
3 edifice kqgxv     
n.宏伟的建筑物(如宫殿,教室)
参考例句:
  • The American consulate was a magnificent edifice in the centre of Bordeaux.美国领事馆是位于波尔多市中心的一座宏伟的大厦。
  • There is a huge Victorian edifice in the area.该地区有一幢维多利亚式的庞大建筑物。
4 degradations ca438dc422e96f353c7e7cbede1b68b0     
堕落( degradation的名词复数 ); 下降; 陵削; 毁坏
参考例句:
  • She described the degradations she had been forced to suffer. 她描述了自己被迫经受的屈辱。
  • Chemical degradations are laborious and time-consuming. 化学降解法复杂且费时间。
5 aged 6zWzdI     
adj.年老的,陈年的
参考例句:
  • He had put on weight and aged a little.他胖了,也老点了。
  • He is aged,but his memory is still good.他已年老,然而记忆力还好。
6 slate uEfzI     
n.板岩,石板,石片,石板色,候选人名单;adj.暗蓝灰色的,含板岩的;vt.用石板覆盖,痛打,提名,预订
参考例句:
  • The nominating committee laid its slate before the board.提名委员会把候选人名单提交全体委员会讨论。
  • What kind of job uses stained wood and slate? 什么工作会接触木头污浊和石板呢?
7 devour hlezt     
v.吞没;贪婪地注视或谛听,贪读;使着迷
参考例句:
  • Larger fish devour the smaller ones.大鱼吃小鱼。
  • Beauty is but a flower which wrinkle will devour.美只不过是一朵,终会被皱纹所吞噬。
8 devourer 4d5777d9e8a6bdeed306bd78c1ba5bc3     
吞噬者
参考例句:
  • All hail Abaddon, the Great Devourer. 魔王(亚巴顿)万岁!伟大的吞噬者。
  • You summon a goddamn Devourer on my turf, and I just let it go? 你在我的地盘召唤了一只吞噬者,而我只是视而不见?
9 imprinted 067f03da98bfd0173442a811075369a0     
v.盖印(imprint的过去式与过去分词形式)
参考例句:
  • The terrible scenes were indelibly imprinted on his mind. 那些恐怖场面深深地铭刻在他的心中。
  • The scene was imprinted on my mind. 那个场面铭刻在我的心中。 来自《简明英汉词典》
10 ass qvyzK     
n.驴;傻瓜,蠢笨的人
参考例句:
  • He is not an ass as they make him.他不象大家猜想的那样笨。
  • An ass endures his burden but not more than his burden.驴能负重但不能超过它能力所负担的。
11 cordon 1otzp     
n.警戒线,哨兵线
参考例句:
  • Police officers threw a cordon around his car to protect him.警察在他汽车周围设置了防卫圈以保护他。
  • There is a tight security cordon around the area.这一地区周围设有严密的安全警戒圈。
12 niches 8500e82896dd104177b4cfd5842b1a09     
壁龛( niche的名词复数 ); 合适的位置[工作等]; (产品的)商机; 生态位(一个生物所占据的生境的最小单位)
参考例句:
  • Some larvae extend the galleries to form niches. 许多幼虫将坑道延伸扩大成壁龛。
  • In his view differences in adaptation are insufficient to create niches commensurate in number and kind. 按照他的观点,适应的差异不足以在数量上和种类上形成同量的小生境。
13 lateral 83ey7     
adj.侧面的,旁边的
参考例句:
  • An airfoil that controls lateral motion.能够控制横向飞行的机翼。
  • Mr.Dawson walked into the court from a lateral door.道森先生从一个侧面的门走进法庭。
14 frail yz3yD     
adj.身体虚弱的;易损坏的
参考例句:
  • Mrs. Warner is already 96 and too frail to live by herself.华纳太太已经九十六岁了,身体虚弱,不便独居。
  • She lay in bed looking particularly frail.她躺在床上,看上去特别虚弱。
15 arcades a42d1a6806a941a9e03d983da7a9af91     
n.商场( arcade的名词复数 );拱形走道(两旁有商店或娱乐设施);连拱廊;拱形建筑物
参考例句:
  • Clothes are on sale in several shopping arcades these days. 近日一些服装店的服装正在大减价。 来自轻松英语会话---联想4000词(下)
  • The Plaza Mayor, with its galleries and arcades, is particularly impressive. 市长大厦以其别具风格的走廊和拱廊给人留下十分深刻的印象。 来自互联网
16 harmonious EdWzx     
adj.和睦的,调和的,和谐的,协调的
参考例句:
  • Their harmonious relationship resulted in part from their similar goals.他们关系融洽的部分原因是他们有着相似的目标。
  • The room was painted in harmonious colors.房间油漆得色彩调和。
17 carving 5wezxw     
n.雕刻品,雕花
参考例句:
  • All the furniture in the room had much carving.房间里所有的家具上都有许多雕刻。
  • He acquired the craft of wood carving in his native town.他在老家学会了木雕手艺。
18 tranquil UJGz0     
adj. 安静的, 宁静的, 稳定的, 不变的
参考例句:
  • The boy disturbed the tranquil surface of the pond with a stick. 那男孩用棍子打破了平静的池面。
  • The tranquil beauty of the village scenery is unique. 这乡村景色的宁静是绝无仅有的。
19 grandeur hejz9     
n.伟大,崇高,宏伟,庄严,豪华
参考例句:
  • The grandeur of the Great Wall is unmatched.长城的壮观是独一无二的。
  • These ruins sufficiently attest the former grandeur of the place.这些遗迹充分证明此处昔日的宏伟。
20 colossal sbwyJ     
adj.异常的,庞大的
参考例句:
  • There has been a colossal waste of public money.一直存在巨大的公款浪费。
  • Some of the tall buildings in that city are colossal.那座城市里的一些高层建筑很庞大。
21 prodigious C1ZzO     
adj.惊人的,奇妙的;异常的;巨大的;庞大的
参考例句:
  • This business generates cash in prodigious amounts.这种业务收益丰厚。
  • He impressed all who met him with his prodigious memory.他惊人的记忆力让所有见过他的人都印象深刻。
22 epoch riTzw     
n.(新)时代;历元
参考例句:
  • The epoch of revolution creates great figures.革命时代造就伟大的人物。
  • We're at the end of the historical epoch,and at the dawn of another.我们正处在一个历史时代的末期,另一个历史时代的开端。
23 forth Hzdz2     
adv.向前;向外,往外
参考例句:
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
24 fecund PkAxn     
adj.多产的,丰饶的,肥沃的
参考例句:
  • The pampas are still among the most fecund lands in the world.南美大草原仍然是世界上最肥沃的土地之一。
  • They have a fecund soil.他们有肥沃的土地。
25 eternity Aiwz7     
n.不朽,来世;永恒,无穷
参考例句:
  • The dull play seemed to last an eternity.这场乏味的剧似乎演个没完没了。
  • Finally,Ying Tai and Shan Bo could be together for all of eternity.英台和山伯终能双宿双飞,永世相随。
26 piously RlYzat     
adv.虔诚地
参考例句:
  • Many pilgrims knelt piously at the shrine.许多朝圣者心虔意诚地在神殿跪拜。
  • The priests piously consecrated the robbery with a hymn.教士们虔诚地唱了一首赞美诗,把这劫夺行为神圣化了。
27 puissant USSxr     
adj.强有力的
参考例句:
  • The young man has a puissant body.这个年轻人有一副强壮的身体。
  • Global shipbuilding industry is puissant in conformity burst forth.全球造船业在整合中强力迸发。
28 spire SF3yo     
n.(教堂)尖顶,尖塔,高点
参考例句:
  • The church spire was struck by lightning.教堂的尖顶遭到了雷击。
  • They could just make out the spire of the church in the distance.他们只能辨认出远处教堂的尖塔。
29 spires 89c7a5b33df162052a427ff0c7ab3cc6     
n.(教堂的) 塔尖,尖顶( spire的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Her masts leveled with the spires of churches. 船的桅杆和教堂的塔尖一样高。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • White church spires lift above green valleys. 教堂的白色尖顶耸立在绿色山谷中。 来自《简明英汉词典》
30 mole 26Nzn     
n.胎块;痣;克分子
参考例句:
  • She had a tiny mole on her cheek.她的面颊上有一颗小黑痣。
  • The young girl felt very self- conscious about the large mole on her chin.那位年轻姑娘对自己下巴上的一颗大痣感到很不自在。
31 formerly ni3x9     
adv.从前,以前
参考例句:
  • We now enjoy these comforts of which formerly we had only heard.我们现在享受到了过去只是听说过的那些舒适条件。
  • This boat was formerly used on the rivers of China.这船从前航行在中国内河里。
32 garnished 978c1af39d17f6c3c31319295529b2c3     
v.给(上餐桌的食物)加装饰( garnish的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • Her robes were garnished with gems. 她的礼服上装饰着宝石。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Serve the dish garnished with wedges of lime. 给这道菜配上几角酸橙。 来自《简明英汉词典》
33 irresistible n4CxX     
adj.非常诱人的,无法拒绝的,无法抗拒的
参考例句:
  • The wheel of history rolls forward with an irresistible force.历史车轮滚滚向前,势不可挡。
  • She saw an irresistible skirt in the store window.她看见商店的橱窗里有一条叫人着迷的裙子。
34 devoured af343afccf250213c6b0cadbf3a346a9     
吞没( devour的过去式和过去分词 ); 耗尽; 津津有味地看; 狼吞虎咽地吃光
参考例句:
  • She devoured everything she could lay her hands on: books, magazines and newspapers. 无论是书、杂志,还是报纸,只要能弄得到,她都看得津津有味。
  • The lions devoured a zebra in a short time. 狮子一会儿就吃掉了一匹斑马。
35 bestowed 12e1d67c73811aa19bdfe3ae4a8c2c28     
赠给,授予( bestow的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • It was a title bestowed upon him by the king. 那是国王赐给他的头衔。
  • He considered himself unworthy of the honour they had bestowed on him. 他认为自己不配得到大家赋予他的荣誉。
36 hue qdszS     
n.色度;色调;样子
参考例句:
  • The diamond shone with every hue under the sun.金刚石在阳光下放出五颜六色的光芒。
  • The same hue will look different in different light.同一颜色在不同的光线下看起来会有所不同。
37 bastard MuSzK     
n.坏蛋,混蛋;私生子
参考例句:
  • He was never concerned about being born a bastard.他从不介意自己是私生子。
  • There was supposed to be no way to get at the bastard.据说没有办法买通那个混蛋。
38 arabesques 09f66ba58977e4bbfd840987e0faecc5     
n.阿拉伯式花饰( arabesque的名词复数 );错综图饰;阿拉伯图案;阿拉贝斯克芭蕾舞姿(独脚站立,手前伸,另一脚一手向后伸)
参考例句:
39 overthrown 1e19c245f384e53a42f4faa000742c18     
adj. 打翻的,推倒的,倾覆的 动词overthrow的过去分词
参考例句:
  • The president was overthrown in a military coup. 总统在军事政变中被赶下台。
  • He has overthrown the basic standards of morality. 他已摒弃了基本的道德标准。
40 myriads d4014a179e3e97ebc9e332273dfd32a4     
n.无数,极大数量( myriad的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Each galaxy contains myriads of stars. 每一星系都有无数的恒星。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The sky was set with myriads of stars. 无数星星点缀着夜空。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
41 nave TGnxw     
n.教堂的中部;本堂
参考例句:
  • People gathered in the nave of the house.人们聚拢在房子的中间。
  • The family on the other side of the nave had a certain look about them,too.在中殿另一边的那一家人,也有着自己特有的相貌。
42 choir sX0z5     
n.唱诗班,唱诗班的席位,合唱团,舞蹈团;v.合唱
参考例句:
  • The choir sang the words out with great vigor.合唱团以极大的热情唱出了歌词。
  • The church choir is singing tonight.今晚教堂歌唱队要唱诗。
43 standing 2hCzgo     
n.持续,地位;adj.永久的,不动的,直立的,不流动的
参考例句:
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
44 equestrian 3PlzG     
adj.骑马的;n.马术
参考例句:
  • They all showed extraordinary equestrian skills.他们的骑术都很高超。
  • I want to book two equestrian tickets.我想订两张马术比赛的票。
45 bishop AtNzd     
n.主教,(国际象棋)象
参考例句:
  • He was a bishop who was held in reverence by all.他是一位被大家都尊敬的主教。
  • Two years after his death the bishop was canonised.主教逝世两年后被正式封为圣者。
46 bishops 391617e5d7bcaaf54a7c2ad3fc490348     
(基督教某些教派管辖大教区的)主教( bishop的名词复数 ); (国际象棋的)象
参考例句:
  • Each player has two bishops at the start of the game. 棋赛开始时,每名棋手有两只象。
  • "Only sheriffs and bishops and rich people and kings, and such like. “他劫富济贫,抢的都是郡长、主教、国王之类的富人。
47 gendarmes e775b824de98b38fb18be9103d68a1d9     
n.宪兵,警官( gendarme的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Of course, the line of prisoners was guarded at all times by armed gendarmes. 当然,这一切都是在荷枪实弹的卫兵监视下进行的。 来自百科语句
  • The three men were gendarmes;the other was Jean Valjean. 那三个人是警察,另一个就是冉阿让。 来自互联网
48 copper HZXyU     
n.铜;铜币;铜器;adj.铜(制)的;(紫)铜色的
参考例句:
  • The students are asked to prove the purity of copper.要求学生们检验铜的纯度。
  • Copper is a good medium for the conduction of heat and electricity.铜是热和电的良导体。
49 brutally jSRya     
adv.残忍地,野蛮地,冷酷无情地
参考例句:
  • The uprising was brutally put down.起义被残酷地镇压下去了。
  • A pro-democracy uprising was brutally suppressed.一场争取民主的起义被残酷镇压了。
50 encumbered 2cc6acbd84773f26406796e78a232e40     
v.妨碍,阻碍,拖累( encumber的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • The police operation was encumbered by crowds of reporters. 警方的行动被成群的记者所妨碍。
  • The narrow quay was encumbered by hundreds of carts. 狭窄的码头被数百辆手推车堵得水泄不通。 来自辞典例句
51 shrines 9ec38e53af7365fa2e189f82b1f01792     
圣地,圣坛,神圣场所( shrine的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • All three structures dated to the third century and were tentatively identified as shrines. 这3座建筑都建于3 世纪,并且初步鉴定为神庙。
  • Their palaces and their shrines are tombs. 它们的宫殿和神殿成了墓穴。
52 specimen Xvtwm     
n.样本,标本
参考例句:
  • You'll need tweezers to hold up the specimen.你要用镊子来夹这标本。
  • This specimen is richly variegated in colour.这件标本上有很多颜色。
53 pillaged 844deb1d24d194f39d4fc705e49ecc5b     
v.抢劫,掠夺( pillage的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • They are to be pillaged and terrorised in Hitler's fury and revenge. 在希特勒的狂怒和报复下,他们还遭到掠夺和恐怖统治。 来自辞典例句
  • They villages were pillaged and their crops destroyed. 他们的村子被抢,他们的庄稼被毁。 来自辞典例句
54 panes c8bd1ed369fcd03fe15520d551ab1d48     
窗玻璃( pane的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The sun caught the panes and flashed back at him. 阳光照到窗玻璃上,又反射到他身上。
  • The window-panes are dim with steam. 玻璃窗上蒙上了一层蒸汽。
55 beholding 05d0ea730b39c90ee12d6e6b8c193935     
v.看,注视( behold的现在分词 );瞧;看呀;(叙述中用于引出某人意外的出现)哎哟
参考例句:
  • Beholding, besides love, the end of love,/Hearing oblivion beyond memory! 我看见了爱,还看到了爱的结局,/听到了记忆外层的哪一片寂寥! 来自英汉 - 翻译样例 - 文学
  • Hence people who began by beholding him ended by perusing him. 所以人们从随便看一看他开始的,都要以仔细捉摸他而终结。 来自辞典例句
56 smeared c767e97773b70cc726f08526efd20e83     
弄脏; 玷污; 涂抹; 擦上
参考例句:
  • The children had smeared mud on the walls. 那几个孩子往墙上抹了泥巴。
  • A few words were smeared. 有写字被涂模糊了。
57 edifices 26c1bcdcaf99b103a92f85d17e87712e     
n.大建筑物( edifice的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • They complain that the monstrous edifices interfere with television reception. 他们抱怨说,那些怪物般的庞大建筑,干扰了电视接收。 来自辞典例句
  • Wealthy officials and landlords built these queer edifices a thousand years ago. 有钱的官吏和地主在一千年前就修建了这种奇怪的建筑物。 来自辞典例句
58 infamous K7ax3     
adj.声名狼藉的,臭名昭著的,邪恶的
参考例句:
  • He was infamous for his anti-feminist attitudes.他因反对女性主义而声名狼藉。
  • I was shocked by her infamous behaviour.她的无耻行径令我震惊。
59 ascend avnzD     
vi.渐渐上升,升高;vt.攀登,登上
参考例句:
  • We watched the airplane ascend higher and higher.我们看着飞机逐渐升高。
  • We ascend in the order of time and of development.我们按时间和发展顺序向上溯。
60 intersection w54xV     
n.交集,十字路口,交叉点;[计算机] 交集
参考例句:
  • There is a stop sign at an intersection.在交叉路口处有停车标志。
  • Bridges are used to avoid the intersection of a railway and a highway.桥用来避免铁路和公路直接交叉。
61 pointed Il8zB4     
adj.尖的,直截了当的
参考例句:
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
62 sonorous qFMyv     
adj.响亮的,回响的;adv.圆润低沉地;感人地;n.感人,堂皇
参考例句:
  • The sonorous voice of the speaker echoed round the room.那位演讲人洪亮的声音在室内回荡。
  • He has a deep sonorous voice.他的声音深沉而洪亮。
63 notched ZHKx9     
a.有凹口的,有缺口的
参考例句:
  • Torino notched up a 2-1 win at Lazio. 都灵队以2 比1 赢了拉齐奧队。
  • He notched up ten points in the first five minutes of the game. 他在比赛开始后的五分钟里得了十分。
64 gnawed 85643b5b73cc74a08138f4534f41cef1     
咬( gnaw的过去式和过去分词 ); (长时间) 折磨某人; (使)苦恼; (长时间)危害某事物
参考例句:
  • His attitude towards her gnawed away at her confidence. 他对她的态度一直在削弱她的自尊心。
  • The root of this dead tree has been gnawed away by ants. 这棵死树根被蚂蚁唼了。
65 grotesque O6ryZ     
adj.怪诞的,丑陋的;n.怪诞的图案,怪人(物)
参考例句:
  • His face has a grotesque appearance.他的面部表情十分怪。
  • Her account of the incident was a grotesque distortion of the truth.她对这件事的陈述是荒诞地歪曲了事实。
66 deviations 02ee50408d4c28684c509a0539908669     
背离,偏离( deviation的名词复数 ); 离经叛道的行为
参考例句:
  • Local deviations depend strongly on the local geometry of the solid matrix. 局部偏离严格地依赖于固体矩阵的局部几何形状。
  • They were a series of tactical day-to-day deviations from White House policy. 它们是一系列策略上一天天摆脱白宫政策的偏向。
67 renaissance PBdzl     
n.复活,复兴,文艺复兴
参考例句:
  • The Renaissance was an epoch of unparalleled cultural achievement.文艺复兴是一个文化上取得空前成就的时代。
  • The theme of the conference is renaissance Europe.大会的主题是文艺复兴时期的欧洲。
68 decadence taLyZ     
n.衰落,颓废
参考例句:
  • The decadence of morals is bad for a nation.道德的堕落对国家是不利的。
  • His article has the power to turn decadence into legend.他的文章具有化破朽为神奇的力量。
69 wrought EoZyr     
v.引起;以…原料制作;运转;adj.制造的
参考例句:
  • Events in Paris wrought a change in British opinion towards France and Germany.巴黎发生的事件改变了英国对法国和德国的看法。
  • It's a walking stick with a gold head wrought in the form of a flower.那是一个金质花形包头的拐杖。
70 slashed 8ff3ba5a4258d9c9f9590cbbb804f2db     
v.挥砍( slash的过去式和过去分词 );鞭打;割破;削减
参考例句:
  • Someone had slashed the tyres on my car. 有人把我的汽车轮胎割破了。
  • He slashed the bark off the tree with his knife. 他用刀把树皮从树上砍下。 来自《简明英汉词典》
71 consistency IY2yT     
n.一贯性,前后一致,稳定性;(液体的)浓度
参考例句:
  • Your behaviour lacks consistency.你的行为缺乏一贯性。
  • We appreciate the consistency and stability in China and in Chinese politics.我们赞赏中国及其政策的连续性和稳定性。
72 presumption XQcxl     
n.推测,可能性,冒昧,放肆,[法律]推定
参考例句:
  • Please pardon my presumption in writing to you.请原谅我很冒昧地写信给你。
  • I don't think that's a false presumption.我认为那并不是错误的推测。
73 miserable g18yk     
adj.悲惨的,痛苦的;可怜的,糟糕的
参考例句:
  • It was miserable of you to make fun of him.你取笑他,这是可耻的。
  • Her past life was miserable.她过去的生活很苦。
74 ornaments 2bf24c2bab75a8ff45e650a1e4388dec     
n.装饰( ornament的名词复数 );点缀;装饰品;首饰v.装饰,点缀,美化( ornament的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • The shelves were chock-a-block with ornaments. 架子上堆满了装饰品。
  • Playing the piano sets up resonance in those glass ornaments. 一弹钢琴那些玻璃饰物就会产生共振。 来自《简明英汉词典》
75 oratory HJ7xv     
n.演讲术;词藻华丽的言辞
参考例句:
  • I admire the oratory of some politicians.我佩服某些政治家的辩才。
  • He dazzled the crowd with his oratory.他的雄辩口才使听众赞叹不已。
76 grimacing bf9222142df61c434d658b6986419fc3     
v.扮鬼相,做鬼脸( grimace的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • But then Boozer drove past Gasol for a rattling, grimacing slam dunk. 可布泽尔单吃家嫂,以一记强有力的扣篮将比分超出。 来自互联网
  • The martyrdom of Archbishop Cranmer, said the don at last, grimacing with embarrassment. 最后那位老师尴尬地做个鬼脸,说,这是大主教克莱默的殉道士。 来自互联网
77 ravages 5d742bcf18f0fd7c4bc295e4f8d458d8     
劫掠后的残迹,破坏的结果,毁坏后的残迹
参考例句:
  • the ravages of war 战争造成的灾难
  • It is hard for anyone to escape from the ravages of time. 任何人都很难逃避时间的摧残。
78 warts b5d5eab9e823b8f3769fad05f1f2d423     
n.疣( wart的名词复数 );肉赘;树瘤;缺点
参考例句:
  • You agreed to marry me, warts and all! 是你同意和我结婚的,我又没掩饰缺陷。 来自辞典例句
  • Talk about trying to cure warts with spunk-water such a blame fool way as that! 用那样糊涂蛋的方法还谈什么仙水治疣子! 来自英汉文学 - 汤姆历险
79 epidermis AZhzW     
n.表皮
参考例句:
  • The external layer of skin is called the epidermis.皮的外层叫表皮。
  • There is a neoplasm originating in his leg's epidermis.他的腿上有个生长在表皮上的肿瘤。
80 joints d97dcffd67eca7255ca514e4084b746e     
接头( joint的名词复数 ); 关节; 公共场所(尤指价格低廉的饮食和娱乐场所) (非正式); 一块烤肉 (英式英语)
参考例句:
  • Expansion joints of various kinds are fitted on gas mains. 各种各样的伸缩接头被安装在煤气的总管道上了。
  • Expansion joints of various kinds are fitted on steam pipes. 各种各样的伸缩接头被安装在蒸气管道上了。
81 barbarian nyaz13     
n.野蛮人;adj.野蛮(人)的;未开化的
参考例句:
  • There is a barbarian tribe living in this forest.有一个原始部落居住在这个林区。
  • The walled city was attacked by barbarian hordes.那座有城墙的城市遭到野蛮部落的袭击。
82 slain slain     
杀死,宰杀,杀戮( slay的过去分词 ); (slay的过去分词)
参考例句:
  • The soldiers slain in the battle were burried that night. 在那天夜晚埋葬了在战斗中牺牲了的战士。
  • His boy was dead, slain by the hand of the false Amulius. 他的儿子被奸诈的阿缪利乌斯杀死了。
83 devastate PZRzy     
v.使荒芜,破坏,压倒
参考例句:
  • A few days before,a fire had devastated large parts of Windsor Castle.几天前,温莎城堡的大部分被一场大火烧毁。
  • Earthquakes can also cause tsunamis,which devastate coastal regions.地震还引发海啸,它直接破坏海岸地区。
84 impartiality 5b49bb7ab0b3222fd7bf263721e2169d     
n. 公平, 无私, 不偏
参考例句:
  • He shows impartiality and detachment. 他表现得不偏不倚,超然事外。
  • Impartiality is essential to a judge. 公平是当法官所必需的。
85 licensed ipMzNI     
adj.得到许可的v.许可,颁发执照(license的过去式和过去分词)
参考例句:
  • The new drug has not yet been licensed in the US. 这种新药尚未在美国获得许可。
  • Is that gun licensed? 那支枪有持枪执照吗?
86 caterpillars 7673bc2d84c4c7cba4a0eaec866310f4     
n.毛虫( caterpillar的名词复数 );履带
参考例句:
  • Caterpillars eat the young leaves of this plant. 毛毛虫吃这种植物的嫩叶。
  • Caterpillars change into butterflies or moths. 毛虫能变成蝴蝶或蛾子。 来自辞典例句
87 lauded b67508c0ca90664fe666700495cd0226     
v.称赞,赞美( laud的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • They lauded the former president as a hero. 他们颂扬前总统为英雄。 来自辞典例句
  • The nervy feats of the mountaineers were lauded. 登山者有勇气的壮举受到赞美。 来自辞典例句
88 vault 3K3zW     
n.拱形圆顶,地窖,地下室
参考例句:
  • The vault of this cathedral is very high.这座天主教堂的拱顶非常高。
  • The old patrician was buried in the family vault.这位老贵族埋在家族的墓地里。
89 simplicity Vryyv     
n.简单,简易;朴素;直率,单纯
参考例句:
  • She dressed with elegant simplicity.她穿着朴素高雅。
  • The beauty of this plan is its simplicity.简明扼要是这个计划的一大特点。
90 progenitor 2iiyD     
n.祖先,先驱
参考例句:
  • He was also a progenitor of seven presidents of Nicaragua.他也是尼加拉瓜7任总统的祖先。
  • Schoenberg was a progenitor of modern music.勋伯格是一位现代音乐的先驱。
91 bristling tSqyl     
a.竖立的
参考例句:
  • "Don't you question Miz Wilkes' word,'said Archie, his beard bristling. "威尔克斯太太的话,你就不必怀疑了。 "阿尔奇说。他的胡子也翘了起来。
  • You were bristling just now. 你刚才在发毛。
92 hieroglyph YdBxN     
n.象形文字, 图画文字
参考例句:
  • Each picture,or hieroglyph,represents either an idea or a sound.每一图画或者每一个象形代表着一种想法或者一种声音。
  • The hieroglyph for"king's son"can be translated as "son-in-law" or "grandfather".象形文字“国王的儿子”还可译为“女婿”或“祖父”。
93 hieroglyphics 875efb138c1099851d6647d532c0036f     
n.pl.象形文字
参考例句:
  • Hieroglyphics are carved into the walls of the temple. 寺庙的墙壁上刻着象形文字。
  • His writing is so bad it just looks like hieroglyphics to me. 他写的糟透了,对我来说就像天书一样。
94 hieroglyphic 5dKxO     
n.象形文字
参考例句:
  • For centuries hieroglyphic word pictures painted on Egyptian ruins were a mystery.几世纪以来,刻划在埃及废墟中的象形文字一直是个谜。
  • Dongba is an ancient hieroglyphic language.东巴文是中国一种古老的象形文字。
95 symbolical nrqwT     
a.象征性的
参考例句:
  • The power of the monarchy in Britain today is more symbolical than real. 今日英国君主的权力多为象徵性的,无甚实际意义。
  • The Lord introduces the first symbolical language in Revelation. 主说明了启示录中第一个象徵的语言。
96 zigzags abaf3e38b28a59d9998c85607babdaee     
n.锯齿形的线条、小径等( zigzag的名词复数 )v.弯弯曲曲地走路,曲折地前进( zigzag的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • The path descended the hill in a series of zigzags. 小路呈连续的之字形顺着山坡蜿蜒而下。
  • History moves in zigzags and by roundabout ways. 历史的发展是曲折的,迂回的。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
97 transformation SnFwO     
n.变化;改造;转变
参考例句:
  • Going to college brought about a dramatic transformation in her outlook.上大学使她的观念发生了巨大的变化。
  • He was struggling to make the transformation from single man to responsible husband.他正在努力使自己由单身汉变为可靠的丈夫。
98 theocratic d2a97031b61665441ee994e2c7847117     
adj.神权的,神权政治的
参考例句:
  • The priest caste wields considerable power in this rigidly theocratic society. 祭司阶层(priestcaste)在这个严格的神权社会中掌握着相当大的权力。 来自互联网
  • The heartland of Islam, by contrast, is theocratic. 相反,伊斯兰教的核心地带则是神权政治。 来自互联网
99 conqueror PY3yI     
n.征服者,胜利者
参考例句:
  • We shall never yield to a conqueror.我们永远不会向征服者低头。
  • They abandoned the city to the conqueror.他们把那个城市丢弃给征服者。
100 communal VbcyU     
adj.公有的,公共的,公社的,公社制的
参考例句:
  • There was a communal toilet on the landing for the four flats.在楼梯平台上有一处公共卫生间供4套公寓使用。
  • The toilets and other communal facilities were in a shocking state.厕所及其他公共设施的状况极其糟糕。
101 bourgeois ERoyR     
adj./n.追求物质享受的(人);中产阶级分子
参考例句:
  • He's accusing them of having a bourgeois and limited vision.他指责他们像中产阶级一样目光狭隘。
  • The French Revolution was inspired by the bourgeois.法国革命受到中产阶级的鼓励。
102 artistic IeWyG     
adj.艺术(家)的,美术(家)的;善于艺术创作的
参考例句:
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
103 dart oydxK     
v.猛冲,投掷;n.飞镖,猛冲
参考例句:
  • The child made a sudden dart across the road.那小孩突然冲过马路。
  • Markov died after being struck by a poison dart.马尔科夫身中毒镖而亡。
104 upwards lj5wR     
adv.向上,在更高处...以上
参考例句:
  • The trend of prices is still upwards.物价的趋向是仍在上涨。
  • The smoke rose straight upwards.烟一直向上升。
105 graft XQBzg     
n.移植,嫁接,艰苦工作,贪污;v.移植,嫁接
参考例句:
  • I am having a skin graft on my arm soon.我马上就要接受手臂的皮肤移植手术。
  • The minister became rich through graft.这位部长透过贪污受贿致富。
106 attains 7244c7c9830392f8f3df1cb8d96b91df     
(通常经过努力)实现( attain的第三人称单数 ); 达到; 获得; 达到(某年龄、水平、状况)
参考例句:
  • This is the period at which the body attains maturity. 这是身体发育成熟的时期。
  • The temperature a star attains is determined by its mass. 恒星所达到的温度取决于它的质量。
107 delicacy mxuxS     
n.精致,细微,微妙,精良;美味,佳肴
参考例句:
  • We admired the delicacy of the craftsmanship.我们佩服工艺师精巧的手艺。
  • He sensed the delicacy of the situation.他感觉到了形势的微妙。
108 compendium xXay7     
n.简要,概略
参考例句:
  • The Compendium of Materia Medica has been held in high esteem since it was first published.“本草纲目”问世之后,深受人们的推重。
  • The book is a compendium of their poetry,religion and philosophy.这本书是他们诗歌、宗教和哲学的概略。
109 prelude 61Fz6     
n.序言,前兆,序曲
参考例句:
  • The prelude to the musical composition is very long.这首乐曲的序曲很长。
  • The German invasion of Poland was a prelude to World War II.德国入侵波兰是第二次世界大战的序幕。
110 unity 4kQwT     
n.团结,联合,统一;和睦,协调
参考例句:
  • When we speak of unity,we do not mean unprincipled peace.所谓团结,并非一团和气。
  • We must strengthen our unity in the face of powerful enemies.大敌当前,我们必须加强团结。
111 schism kZ8xh     
n.分派,派系,分裂
参考例句:
  • The church seems to be on the brink of schism.教会似乎处于分裂的边缘。
  • While some predict schism,others predict a good old fashioned compromise.在有些人预测分裂的同时,另一些人预测了有益的老式妥协。
112 mingle 3Dvx8     
vt.使混合,使相混;vi.混合起来;相交往
参考例句:
  • If we mingle with the crowd,we should not be noticed.如果我们混在人群中,就不会被注意到。
  • Oil will not mingle with water.油和水不相融。
113 mingled fdf34efd22095ed7e00f43ccc823abdf     
混合,混入( mingle的过去式和过去分词 ); 混进,与…交往[联系]
参考例句:
  • The sounds of laughter and singing mingled in the evening air. 笑声和歌声交织在夜空中。
  • The man and the woman mingled as everyone started to relax. 当大家开始放松的时候,这一男一女就开始交往了。
114 amalgamated ed85e8e23651662e5e12b2453a8d0f6f     
v.(使)(金属)汞齐化( amalgamate的过去式和过去分词 );(使)合并;联合;结合
参考例句:
  • The company has now amalgamated with another local firm. 这家公司现在已与当地一家公司合并了。
  • Those two organizations have been amalgamated into single one. 那两个组织已合并为一个组织。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
115 amalgamate XxwzQ     
v.(指业务等)合并,混合
参考例句:
  • Their company is planning to amalgamate with ours.他们公司正计划同我们公司合并。
  • The unions will attempt to amalgamate their groups into one national body.工会将试图合并其群体纳入一个国家机构。
116 chimera DV3yw     
n.神话怪物;梦幻
参考例句:
  • Religious unity remained as much a chimera as ever.宗教统一仍然和从前一样,不过是个妄想。
  • I am fighting against my chimera.我在与狂想抗争。
117 hybrid pcBzu     
n.(动,植)杂种,混合物
参考例句:
  • That is a hybrid perpetual rose.那是一株杂交的四季开花的蔷薇。
  • The hybrid was tall,handsome,and intelligent.那混血儿高大、英俊、又聪明。
118 primitive vSwz0     
adj.原始的;简单的;n.原(始)人,原始事物
参考例句:
  • It is a primitive instinct to flee a place of danger.逃离危险的地方是一种原始本能。
  • His book describes the march of the civilization of a primitive society.他的著作描述了一个原始社会的开化过程。
119 vestiges abe7c965ff1797742478ada5aece0ed3     
残余部分( vestige的名词复数 ); 遗迹; 痕迹; 毫不
参考例句:
  • the last vestiges of the old colonial regime 旧殖民制度最后的残余
  • These upright stones are the vestiges of some ancient religion. 这些竖立的石头是某种古代宗教的遗迹。
120 residue 6B0z1     
n.残余,剩余,残渣
参考例句:
  • Mary scraped the residue of food from the plates before putting them under water.玛丽在把盘子放入水之前先刮去上面的食物残渣。
  • Pesticide persistence beyond the critical period for control leads to residue problems.农药一旦超过控制的临界期,就会导致残留问题。
121 beavers 87070e8082105b943967bbe495b7d9f7     
海狸( beaver的名词复数 ); 海狸皮毛; 棕灰色; 拼命工作的人
参考例句:
  • In 1928 some porpoises were photographed working like beavers to push ashore a waterlogged mattress. 1928年有人把这些海豚象海狸那样把一床浸泡了水的褥垫推上岸时的情景拍摄了下来。
  • Thus do the beavers, thus do the bees, thus do men. 海狸是这样做的,蜜蜂是这样做的,人也是这样做的。
122 pending uMFxw     
prep.直到,等待…期间;adj.待定的;迫近的
参考例句:
  • The lawsuit is still pending in the state court.这案子仍在州法庭等待定夺。
  • He knew my examination was pending.他知道我就要考试了。
123 accomplished UzwztZ     
adj.有才艺的;有造诣的;达到了的
参考例句:
  • Thanks to your help,we accomplished the task ahead of schedule.亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
  • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator.通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
124 effaced 96bc7c37d0e2e4d8665366db4bc7c197     
v.擦掉( efface的过去式和过去分词 );抹去;超越;使黯然失色
参考例句:
  • Someone has effaced part of the address on his letter. 有人把他信上的一部分地址擦掉了。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • The name of the ship had been effaced from the menus. 那艘船的名字已经从菜单中删除了。 来自辞典例句
125 Christian KVByl     
adj.基督教徒的;n.基督教徒
参考例句:
  • They always addressed each other by their Christian name.他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  • His mother is a sincere Christian.他母亲是个虔诚的基督教徒。
126 perfectly 8Mzxb     
adv.完美地,无可非议地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The witnesses were each perfectly certain of what they said.证人们个个对自己所说的话十分肯定。
  • Everything that we're doing is all perfectly above board.我们做的每件事情都是光明正大的。
127 spectrum Trhy6     
n.谱,光谱,频谱;范围,幅度,系列
参考例句:
  • This is a kind of atomic spectrum.这是一种原子光谱。
  • We have known much of the constitution of the solar spectrum.关于太阳光谱的构成,我们已了解不少。
128 plunged 06a599a54b33c9d941718dccc7739582     
v.颠簸( plunge的过去式和过去分词 );暴跌;骤降;突降
参考例句:
  • The train derailed and plunged into the river. 火车脱轨栽进了河里。
  • She lost her balance and plunged 100 feet to her death. 她没有站稳,从100英尺的高处跌下摔死了。
129 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
130 derived 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2     
vi.起源;由来;衍生;导出v.得到( derive的过去式和过去分词 );(从…中)得到获得;源于;(从…中)提取
参考例句:
  • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英语很多词源出于拉丁文和希腊文。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他对文学的爱好是受他父亲的影响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
131 precisely zlWzUb     
adv.恰好,正好,精确地,细致地
参考例句:
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那种油腔滑调的推销宣传。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那个人调得很准。
132 embroidered StqztZ     
adj.绣花的
参考例句:
  • She embroidered flowers on the cushion covers. 她在这些靠垫套上绣了花。
  • She embroidered flowers on the front of the dress. 她在连衣裙的正面绣花。
133 rudiment TCMzf     
n.初步;初级;基本原理
参考例句:
  • The rudiment with the capitalism,new developing citizens stratum appeared in the society in the ming dynasty.伴随着资本主义的萌芽,明代社会出现了新兴的市民阶层。
  • It do not take me long to pick up the rudiment of the language.我没有费多少时间就学会了这一语言的初步知识。
134 naves 4932fc033ac7d714aff298dfe6de4fdf     
n.教堂正厅( nave的名词复数 );本堂;中央部;车轮的中心部
参考例句:
  • It's structured as a Latin cross with three naves divided by pillars. 教堂的形状更是以古老的拉丁十字为基础,内部由一根根地石柱隔成三条长廊。 来自互联网
135 aisles aisles     
n. (席位间的)通道, 侧廊
参考例句:
  • Aisles were added to the original Saxon building in the Norman period. 在诺曼时期,原来的萨克森风格的建筑物都增添了走廊。
  • They walked about the Abbey aisles, and presently sat down. 他们走到大教堂的走廊附近,并且很快就坐了下来。
136 chapels 93d40e7c6d7bdd896fdd5dbc901f41b8     
n.小教堂, (医院、监狱等的)附属礼拜堂( chapel的名词复数 );(在小教堂和附属礼拜堂举行的)礼拜仪式
参考例句:
  • Both castles had their own chapels too, which was incredible to see. 两个城堡都有自己的礼拜堂,非常华美。 来自互联网
  • It has an ambulatory and seven chapels. 它有一条走廊和七个小教堂。 来自互联网
137 promenades e9e1a7b588956115c398fd8f01ebb0bf     
n.人行道( promenade的名词复数 );散步场所;闲逛v.兜风( promenade的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • He often promenades his wife along the Thames Embankment. 他常常带太太沿着泰晤士河堤防散步。 来自辞典例句
  • Stoas lined marketplaces and sanctuaries and formed places of Business and public promenades. 柱廊围绕在市场和神庙的四周,是交易和公众散步的场所。 来自互联网
138 pinnacles a4409b051276579e99d5cb7d58643f4e     
顶峰( pinnacle的名词复数 ); 顶点; 尖顶; 小尖塔
参考例句:
  • What would be the pinnacles of your acting and music? 对你而言什麽代表你的演技和音乐的巅峰?
  • On Skye's Trotternish Peninsula, basalt pinnacles loom over the Sound of Raasay. 在斯开岛的特洛登尼许半岛,玄武岩尖塔俯瞰着拉塞海峡。
139 infinity o7QxG     
n.无限,无穷,大量
参考例句:
  • It is impossible to count up to infinity.不可能数到无穷大。
  • Theoretically,a line can extend into infinity.从理论上来说直线可以无限地延伸。
140 exterior LlYyr     
adj.外部的,外在的;表面的
参考例句:
  • The seed has a hard exterior covering.这种子外壳很硬。
  • We are painting the exterior wall of the house.我们正在给房子的外墙涂漆。
141 foliage QgnzK     
n.叶子,树叶,簇叶
参考例句:
  • The path was completely covered by the dense foliage.小路被树叶厚厚地盖了一层。
  • Dark foliage clothes the hills.浓密的树叶覆盖着群山。


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