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Book 3 Chapter 1 Notre-dame

The church of Notre-Dame de Paris is still no doubt, a majestic1 and sublime2 edifice3. But, beautiful as it has been preserved in growing old, it is difficult not to sigh, not to wax indignant, before the numberless degradations4 and mutilations which time and men have both caused the venerable monument to suffer, without respect for Charlemagne, who laid its first stone, or for Philip Augustus, who laid the last.

On the face of this aged5 queen of our cathedrals, by the side of a wrinkle, one always finds a scar. ~Tempus edax, homo edacior*~; which I should be glad to translate thus: time is blind, man is stupid.

* Time is a devourer8; man, more so.

If we had leisure to examine with the reader, one by one, the diverse traces of destruction imprinted9 upon the old church, time's share would be the least, the share of men the most, especially the men of art, since there have been individuals who assumed the title of architects during the last two centuries.

And, in the first place, to cite only a few leading examples, there certainly are few finer architectural pages than this fa?ade, where, successively and at once, the three portals hollowed out in an arch; the broidered and dentated cordon11 of the eight and twenty royal niches12; the immense central rose window, flanked by its two lateral13 windows, like a priest by his deacon and subdeacon; the frail14 and lofty gallery of trefoil arcades15, which supports a heavy platform above its fine, slender columns; and lastly, the two black and massive towers with their slate6 penthouses, harmonious16 parts of a magnificent whole, superposed in five gigantic stories;--develop themselves before the eye, in a mass and without confusion, with their innumerable details of statuary, carving17, and sculpture, joined powerfully to the tranquil18 grandeur19 of the whole; a vast symphony in stone, so to speak; the colossal20 work of one man and one people, all together one and complex, like the Iliads and the Romanceros, whose sister it is; prodigious21 product of the grouping together of all the forces of an epoch22, where, upon each stone, one sees the fancy of the workman disciplined by the genius of the artist start forth23 in a hundred fashions; a sort of human creation, in a word, powerful and fecund24 as the divine creation of which it seems to have stolen the double character,--variety, eternity25.

And what we here say of the fa?ade must be said of the entire church; and what we say of the cathedral church of Paris, must be said of all the churches of Christendom in the Middle Ages. All things are in place in that art, self-created, logical, and well proportioned. To measure the great toe of the foot is to measure the giant.

Let us return to the fa?ade of Notre-Dame, as it still appears to us, when we go piously26 to admire the grave and puissant27 cathedral, which inspires terror, so its chronicles assert: ~quoe mole30 sua terrorem incutit spectantibus~.

Three important things are to-day lacking in that fa?ade: in the first place, the staircase of eleven steps which formerly31 raised it above the soil; next, the lower series of statues which occupied the niches of the three portals; and lastly the upper series, of the twenty-eight most ancient kings of France, which garnished32 the gallery of the first story, beginning with Childebert, and ending with Phillip Augustus, holding in his hand "the imperial apple."

Time has caused the staircase to disappear, by raising the soil of the city with a slow and irresistible33 progress; but, while thus causing the eleven steps which added to the majestic height of the edifice, to be devoured34, one by one, by the rising tide of the pavements of Paris,--time has bestowed35 upon the church perhaps more than it has taken away, for it is time which has spread over the fa?ade that sombre hue36 of the centuries which makes the old age of monuments the period of their beauty.

But who has thrown down the two rows of statues? who has left the niches empty? who has cut, in the very middle of the central portal, that new and bastard37 arch? who has dared to frame therein that commonplace and heavy door of carved wood, à la Louis XV., beside the arabesques38 of Biscornette? The men, the architects, the artists of our day.

And if we enter the interior of the edifice, who has overthrown39 that colossus of Saint Christopher, proverbial for magnitude among statues, as the grand hall of the Palais de Justice was among halls, as the spire28 of Strasbourg among spires29? And those myriads40 of statues, which peopled all the spaces between the columns of the nave41 and the choir42, kneeling, standing43, equestrian44, men, women, children, kings, bishops46, gendarmes47, in stone, in marble, in gold, in silver, in copper48, in wax even,--who has brutally49 swept them away? It is not time.

And who substituted for the ancient gothic altar, splendidly encumbered50 with shrines51 and reliquaries, that heavy marble sarcophagus, with angels' heads and clouds, which seems a specimen52 pillaged53 from the Val-de-Grace or the Invalides? Who stupidly sealed that heavy anachronism of stone in the Carlovingian pavement of Hercandus? Was it not Louis XIV., fulfilling the request of Louis XIII.?

And who put the cold, white panes54 in the place of those windows," high in color, "which caused the astonished eyes of our fathers to hesitate between the rose of the grand portal and the arches of the apse? And what would a sub-chanter of the sixteenth century say, on beholding55 the beautiful yellow wash, with which our archiepiscopal vandals have desmeared their cathedral? He would remember that it was the color with which the hangman smeared56 "accursed" edifices57; he would recall the H?tel du Petit-Bourbon, all smeared thus, on account of the constable's treason. "Yellow, after all, of so good a quality," said Sauval, "and so well recommended, that more than a century has not yet caused it to lose its color." He would think that the sacred place had become infamous58, and would flee.

And if we ascend59 the cathedral, without mentioning a thousand barbarisms of every sort,--what has become of that charming little bell tower, which rested upon the point of intersection60 of the cross-roofs, and which, no less frail and no less bold than its neighbor (also destroyed), the spire of the Sainte-Chapelle, buried itself in the sky, farther forward than the towers, slender, pointed61, sonorous62, carved in open work. An architect of good taste amputated it (1787), and considered it sufficient to mask the wound with that large, leaden plaster, which resembles a pot cover.

'Tis thus that the marvellous art of the Middle Ages has been treated in nearly every country, especially in France. One can distinguish on its ruins three sorts of lesions, all three of which cut into it at different depths; first, time, which has insensibly notched63 its surface here and there, and gnawed64 it everywhere; next, political and religious revolution, which, blind and wrathful by nature, have flung themselves tumultuously upon it, torn its rich garment of carving and sculpture, burst its rose windows, broken its necklace of arabesques and tiny figures, torn out its statues, sometimes because of their mitres, sometimes because of their crowns; lastly, fashions, even more grotesque65 and foolish, which, since the anarchical and splendid deviations66 of the Renaissance67, have followed each other in the necessary decadence68 of architecture. Fashions have wrought69 more harm than revolutions. They have cut to the quick; they have attacked the very bone and framework of art; they have cut, slashed70, disorganized, killed the edifice, in form as in the symbol, in its consistency71 as well as in its beauty. And then they have made it over; a presumption72 of which neither time nor revolutions at least have been guilty. They have audaciously adjusted, in the name of "good taste," upon the wounds of gothic architecture, their miserable73 gewgaws of a day, their ribbons of marble, their pompons of metal, a veritable leprosy of egg-shaped ornaments74, volutes, whorls, draperies, garlands, fringes, stone flames, bronze clouds, pudgy cupids, chubby- cheeked cherubim, which begin to devour7 the face of art in the oratory75 of Catherine de Medicis, and cause it to expire, two centuries later, tortured and grimacing76, in the boudoir of the Dubarry.

Thus, to sum up the points which we have just indicated, three sorts of ravages77 to-day disfigure Gothic architecture. Wrinkles and warts78 on the epidermis79; this is the work of time. Deeds of violence, brutalities, contusions, fractures; this is the work of the revolutions from Luther to Mirabeau. Mutilations, amputations, dislocation of the joints80, "restorations"; this is the Greek, Roman, and barbarian81 work of professors according to Vitruvius and Vignole. This magnificent art produced by the Vandals has been slain82 by the academies. The centuries, the revolutions, which at least devastate83 with impartiality84 and grandeur, have been joined by a cloud of school architects, licensed85, sworn, and bound by oath; defacing with the discernment and choice of bad taste, substituting the ~chicorées~ of Louis XV. for the Gothic lace, for the greater glory of the Parthenon. It is the kick of the ass10 at the dying lion. It is the old oak crowning itself, and which, to heap the measure full, is stung, bitten, and gnawed by caterpillars86.

How far it is from the epoch when Robert Cenalis, comparing Notre-Dame de Paris to the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus, *so much lauded87 by the ancient pagans*, which Erostatus *has* immortalized, found the Gallic temple "more excellent in length, breadth, height, and structure."*

* _Histoire Gallicane_, liv. II. Periode III. fo. 130, p. 1.

Notre-Dame is not, moreover, what can be called a complete, definite, classified monument. It is no longer a Romanesque church; nor is it a Gothic church. This edifice is not a type. Notre-Dame de Paris has not, like the Abbey of Tournus, the grave and massive frame, the large and round vault88, the glacial bareness, the majestic simplicity89 of the edifices which have the rounded arch for their progenitor90. It is not, like the Cathedral of Bourges, the magnificent, light, multiform, tufted, bristling91 efflorescent product of the pointed arch. Impossible to class it in that ancient family of sombre, mysterious churches, low and crushed as it were by the round arch, almost Egyptian, with the exception of the ceiling; all hieroglyphics93, all sacerdotal, all symbolical95, more loaded in their ornaments, with lozenges and zigzags96, than with flowers, with flowers than with animals, with animals than with men; the work of the architect less than of the bishop45; first transformation97 of art, all impressed with theocratic98 and military discipline, taking root in the Lower Empire, and stopping with the time of William the Conqueror99. Impossible to place our Cathedral in that other family of lofty, aerial churches, rich in painted windows and sculpture; pointed in form, bold in attitude; communal100 and bourgeois101 as political symbols; free, capricious, lawless, as a work of art; second transformation of architecture, no longer hieroglyphic94, immovable and sacerdotal, but artistic102, progressive, and popular, which begins at the return from the crusades, and ends with Louis IX. Notre-Dame de Paris is not of pure Romanesque, like the first; nor of pure Arabian race, like the second.

It is an edifice of the transition period. The Saxon architect completed the erection of the first pillars of the nave, when the pointed arch, which dates from the Crusade, arrived and placed itself as a conqueror upon the large Romanesque capitals which should support only round arches. The pointed arch, mistress since that time, constructed the rest of the church. Nevertheless, timid and inexperienced at the start, it sweeps out, grows larger, restrains itself, and dares no longer dart103 upwards104 in spires and lancet windows, as it did later on, in so many marvellous cathedrals. One would say that it were conscious of the vicinity of the heavy Romanesque pillars.

However, these edifices of the transition from the Romanesque to the Gothic, are no less precious for study than the pure types. They express a shade of the art which would be lost without them. It is the graft105 of the pointed upon the round arch.

Notre-Dame de Paris is, in particular, a curious specimen of this variety. Each face, each stone of the venerable monument, is a page not only of the history of the country, but of the history of science and art as well. Thus, in order to indicate here only the principal details, while the little Red Door almost attains106 to the limits of the Gothic delicacy107 of the fifteenth century, the pillars of the nave, by their size and weight, go back to the Carlovingian Abbey of Saint-Germain des Prés. One would suppose that six centuries separated these pillars from that door. There is no one, not even the hermetics, who does not find in the symbols of the grand portal a satisfactory compendium108 of their science, of which the Church of Saint-Jacques de la Boucherie was so complete a hieroglyph92. Thus, the Roman abbey, the philosophers' church, the Gothic art, Saxon art, the heavy, round pillar, which recalls Gregory VII., the hermetic symbolism, with which Nicolas Flamel played the prelude109 to Luther, papal unity110, schism111, Saint-Germain des Prés, Saint-Jacques de la Boucherie,--all are mingled113, combined, amalgamated114 in Notre-Dame. This central mother church is, among the ancient churches of Paris, a sort of chimera116; it has the head of one, the limbs of another, the haunches of another, something of all.

We repeat it, these hybrid117 constructions are not the least interesting for the artist, for the antiquarian, for the historian. They make one feel to what a degree architecture is a primitive118 thing, by demonstrating (what is also demonstrated by the cyclopean vestiges119, the pyramids of Egypt, the gigantic Hindoo pagodas) that the greatest products of architecture are less the works of individuals than of society; rather the offspring of a nation's effort, than the inspired flash of a man of genius; the deposit left by a whole people; the heaps accumulated by centuries; the residue120 of successive evaporations of human society,--in a word, species of formations. Each wave of time contributes its alluvium, each race deposits its layer on the monument, each individual brings his stone. Thus do the beavers121, thus do the bees, thus do men. The great symbol of architecture, Babel, is a hive.

Great edifices, like great mountains, are the work of centuries. Art often undergoes a transformation while they are pending122, ~pendent opera interrupta~; they proceed quietly in accordance with the transformed art. The new art takes the monument where it finds it, incrusts itself there, assimilates it to itself, develops it according to its fancy, and finishes it if it can. The thing is accomplished123 without trouble, without effort, without reaction,--following a natural and tranquil law. It is a graft which shoots up, a sap which circulates, a vegetation which starts forth anew. Certainly there is matter here for many large volumes, and often the universal history of humanity in the successive engrafting of many arts at many levels, upon the same monument. The man, the artist, the individual, is effaced124 in these great masses, which lack the name of their author; human intelligence is there summed up and totalized. Time is the architect, the nation is the builder.

Not to consider here anything except the Christian125 architecture of Europe, that younger sister of the great masonries of the Orient, it appears to the eyes as an immense formation divided into three well-defined zones, which are superposed, the one upon the other: the Romanesque zone*, the Gothic zone, the zone of the Renaissance, which we would gladly call the Greco-Roman zone. The Roman layer, which is the most ancient and deepest, is occupied by the round arch, which reappears, supported by the Greek column, in the modern and upper layer of the Renaissance. The pointed arch is found between the two. The edifices which belong exclusively to any one of these three layers are perfectly126 distinct, uniform, and complete. There is the Abbey of Jumiéges, there is the Cathedral of Reims, there is the Sainte-Croix of Orleans. But the three zones mingle112 and amalgamate115 along the edges, like the colors in the solar spectrum127. Hence, complex monuments, edifices of gradation and transition. One is Roman at the base, Gothic in the middle, Greco-Roman at the top. It is because it was six hundred years in building. This variety is rare. The donjon keep of d'Etampes is a specimen of it. But monuments of two formations are more frequent. There is Notre-Dame de Paris, a pointed-arch edifice, which is imbedded by its pillars in that Roman zone, in which are plunged128 the portal of Saint-Denis, and the nave of Saint-Germain des Prés. There is the charming, half-Gothic chapter-house of Bocherville, where the Roman layer extends half way up. There is the cathedral of Rouen, which would be entirely129 Gothic if it did not bathe the tip of its central spire in the zone of the Renaissance.**

* This is the same which is called, according to locality, climate, and races, Lombard, Saxon, or Byzantine. There are four sister and parallel architectures, each having its special character, but derived130 from the same origin, the round arch.

~Facies non omnibus una, No diversa tamen, qualem~, etc.

Their faces not all alike, nor yet different, but such as the faces of sisters ought to be.

** This portion of the spire, which was of woodwork, is precisely131 that which was consumed by lightning, in 1823.

However, all these shades, all these differences, do not affect the surfaces of edifices only. It is art which has changed its skin. The very constitution of the Christian church is not attacked by it. There is always the same internal woodwork, the same logical arrangement of parts. Whatever may be the carved and embroidered132 envelope of a cathedral, one always finds beneath it--in the state of a germ, and of a rudiment133 at the least--the Roman basilica. It is eternally developed upon the soil according to the same law. There are, invariably, two naves134, which intersect in a cross, and whose upper portion, rounded into an apse, forms the choir; there are always the side aisles135, for interior processions, for chapels136,--a sort of lateral walks or promenades137 where the principal nave discharges itself through the spaces between the pillars. That settled, the number of chapels, doors, bell towers, and pinnacles138 are modified to infinity139, according to the fancy of the century, the people, and art. The service of religion once assured and provided for, architecture does what she pleases. Statues, stained glass, rose windows, arabesques, denticulations, capitals, bas-reliefs,--she combines all these imaginings according to the arrangement which best suits her. Hence, the prodigious exterior140 variety of these edifices, at whose foundation dwells so much order and unity. The trunk of a tree is immovable; the foliage141 is capricious.




“Tempus edax ,homo edacior。”我们不妨把这句拉丁文译成“时间盲目,人类愚蠢”。





















巴黎圣母院尤其是这种变化的一个奇特的标本。这座可敬的纪念性建筑的每一面、每块石头,都不仅载入了我国的历史,而且载入了科学史和艺术史。我们不妨在这里举出主要的几处来吧:当小红门已经接近十五世纪精致的哥特式艺术的最好水平的时候,本堂里那些柱子却由于体积和重量,又把你带回到圣日尔曼·代·勃雷教堂的加洛林式修道院的时代去了。人们会认为那种小红门和那些柱子之间存在着六百年的差距呢。即使是炼金家们,在大门道的象征性图案里也找不到一种能满足他们那种科学所需要的解答,所以圣雅克·德·拉·布谢里教堂对他们来说,同样是那样难以理解。因此,这种罗曼式寺院,这种具有哲学意味的教堂,这种哥特式艺术,这种沙克逊艺术,这种使人想起格雷果瓦七世的笨重的圆柱子,这种成为路德先驱的尼古拉·弗拉梅尔的神秘的象征主义,教皇权力的统一和分裂,圣日尔曼· 代·勃雷教堂,圣雅克·德·拉·布谢里教堂,所有这些,通通融化,结合,混杂在这座圣母院里了。巴黎古老教堂里最中心的这座教堂象一只怪兽,它的头象是这一座教堂的,四肢是那一座教堂的,臀部又是另一座的,它是所有教堂的综合。










1 majestic GAZxK     
  • In the distance rose the majestic Alps.远处耸立着雄伟的阿尔卑斯山。
  • He looks majestic in uniform.他穿上军装显得很威风。
2 sublime xhVyW     
  • We should take some time to enjoy the sublime beauty of nature.我们应该花些时间去欣赏大自然的壮丽景象。
  • Olympic games play as an important arena to exhibit the sublime idea.奥运会,就是展示此崇高理念的重要舞台。
3 edifice kqgxv     
  • The American consulate was a magnificent edifice in the centre of Bordeaux.美国领事馆是位于波尔多市中心的一座宏伟的大厦。
  • There is a huge Victorian edifice in the area.该地区有一幢维多利亚式的庞大建筑物。
4 degradations ca438dc422e96f353c7e7cbede1b68b0     
堕落( degradation的名词复数 ); 下降; 陵削; 毁坏
  • She described the degradations she had been forced to suffer. 她描述了自己被迫经受的屈辱。
  • Chemical degradations are laborious and time-consuming. 化学降解法复杂且费时间。
5 aged 6zWzdI     
  • He had put on weight and aged a little.他胖了,也老点了。
  • He is aged,but his memory is still good.他已年老,然而记忆力还好。
6 slate uEfzI     
  • The nominating committee laid its slate before the board.提名委员会把候选人名单提交全体委员会讨论。
  • What kind of job uses stained wood and slate? 什么工作会接触木头污浊和石板呢?
7 devour hlezt     
  • Larger fish devour the smaller ones.大鱼吃小鱼。
  • Beauty is but a flower which wrinkle will devour.美只不过是一朵,终会被皱纹所吞噬。
8 devourer 4d5777d9e8a6bdeed306bd78c1ba5bc3     
  • All hail Abaddon, the Great Devourer. 魔王(亚巴顿)万岁!伟大的吞噬者。
  • You summon a goddamn Devourer on my turf, and I just let it go? 你在我的地盘召唤了一只吞噬者,而我只是视而不见?
9 imprinted 067f03da98bfd0173442a811075369a0     
  • The terrible scenes were indelibly imprinted on his mind. 那些恐怖场面深深地铭刻在他的心中。
  • The scene was imprinted on my mind. 那个场面铭刻在我的心中。 来自《简明英汉词典》
10 ass qvyzK     
  • He is not an ass as they make him.他不象大家猜想的那样笨。
  • An ass endures his burden but not more than his burden.驴能负重但不能超过它能力所负担的。
11 cordon 1otzp     
  • Police officers threw a cordon around his car to protect him.警察在他汽车周围设置了防卫圈以保护他。
  • There is a tight security cordon around the area.这一地区周围设有严密的安全警戒圈。
12 niches 8500e82896dd104177b4cfd5842b1a09     
壁龛( niche的名词复数 ); 合适的位置[工作等]; (产品的)商机; 生态位(一个生物所占据的生境的最小单位)
  • Some larvae extend the galleries to form niches. 许多幼虫将坑道延伸扩大成壁龛。
  • In his view differences in adaptation are insufficient to create niches commensurate in number and kind. 按照他的观点,适应的差异不足以在数量上和种类上形成同量的小生境。
13 lateral 83ey7     
  • An airfoil that controls lateral motion.能够控制横向飞行的机翼。
  • Mr.Dawson walked into the court from a lateral door.道森先生从一个侧面的门走进法庭。
14 frail yz3yD     
  • Mrs. Warner is already 96 and too frail to live by herself.华纳太太已经九十六岁了,身体虚弱,不便独居。
  • She lay in bed looking particularly frail.她躺在床上,看上去特别虚弱。
15 arcades a42d1a6806a941a9e03d983da7a9af91     
n.商场( arcade的名词复数 );拱形走道(两旁有商店或娱乐设施);连拱廊;拱形建筑物
  • Clothes are on sale in several shopping arcades these days. 近日一些服装店的服装正在大减价。 来自轻松英语会话---联想4000词(下)
  • The Plaza Mayor, with its galleries and arcades, is particularly impressive. 市长大厦以其别具风格的走廊和拱廊给人留下十分深刻的印象。 来自互联网
16 harmonious EdWzx     
  • Their harmonious relationship resulted in part from their similar goals.他们关系融洽的部分原因是他们有着相似的目标。
  • The room was painted in harmonious colors.房间油漆得色彩调和。
17 carving 5wezxw     
  • All the furniture in the room had much carving.房间里所有的家具上都有许多雕刻。
  • He acquired the craft of wood carving in his native town.他在老家学会了木雕手艺。
18 tranquil UJGz0     
adj. 安静的, 宁静的, 稳定的, 不变的
  • The boy disturbed the tranquil surface of the pond with a stick. 那男孩用棍子打破了平静的池面。
  • The tranquil beauty of the village scenery is unique. 这乡村景色的宁静是绝无仅有的。
19 grandeur hejz9     
  • The grandeur of the Great Wall is unmatched.长城的壮观是独一无二的。
  • These ruins sufficiently attest the former grandeur of the place.这些遗迹充分证明此处昔日的宏伟。
20 colossal sbwyJ     
  • There has been a colossal waste of public money.一直存在巨大的公款浪费。
  • Some of the tall buildings in that city are colossal.那座城市里的一些高层建筑很庞大。
21 prodigious C1ZzO     
  • This business generates cash in prodigious amounts.这种业务收益丰厚。
  • He impressed all who met him with his prodigious memory.他惊人的记忆力让所有见过他的人都印象深刻。
22 epoch riTzw     
  • The epoch of revolution creates great figures.革命时代造就伟大的人物。
  • We're at the end of the historical epoch,and at the dawn of another.我们正处在一个历史时代的末期,另一个历史时代的开端。
23 forth Hzdz2     
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
24 fecund PkAxn     
  • The pampas are still among the most fecund lands in the world.南美大草原仍然是世界上最肥沃的土地之一。
  • They have a fecund soil.他们有肥沃的土地。
25 eternity Aiwz7     
  • The dull play seemed to last an eternity.这场乏味的剧似乎演个没完没了。
  • Finally,Ying Tai and Shan Bo could be together for all of eternity.英台和山伯终能双宿双飞,永世相随。
26 piously RlYzat     
  • Many pilgrims knelt piously at the shrine.许多朝圣者心虔意诚地在神殿跪拜。
  • The priests piously consecrated the robbery with a hymn.教士们虔诚地唱了一首赞美诗,把这劫夺行为神圣化了。
27 puissant USSxr     
  • The young man has a puissant body.这个年轻人有一副强壮的身体。
  • Global shipbuilding industry is puissant in conformity burst forth.全球造船业在整合中强力迸发。
28 spire SF3yo     
  • The church spire was struck by lightning.教堂的尖顶遭到了雷击。
  • They could just make out the spire of the church in the distance.他们只能辨认出远处教堂的尖塔。
29 spires 89c7a5b33df162052a427ff0c7ab3cc6     
n.(教堂的) 塔尖,尖顶( spire的名词复数 )
  • Her masts leveled with the spires of churches. 船的桅杆和教堂的塔尖一样高。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • White church spires lift above green valleys. 教堂的白色尖顶耸立在绿色山谷中。 来自《简明英汉词典》
30 mole 26Nzn     
  • She had a tiny mole on her cheek.她的面颊上有一颗小黑痣。
  • The young girl felt very self- conscious about the large mole on her chin.那位年轻姑娘对自己下巴上的一颗大痣感到很不自在。
31 formerly ni3x9     
  • We now enjoy these comforts of which formerly we had only heard.我们现在享受到了过去只是听说过的那些舒适条件。
  • This boat was formerly used on the rivers of China.这船从前航行在中国内河里。
32 garnished 978c1af39d17f6c3c31319295529b2c3     
v.给(上餐桌的食物)加装饰( garnish的过去式和过去分词 )
  • Her robes were garnished with gems. 她的礼服上装饰着宝石。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Serve the dish garnished with wedges of lime. 给这道菜配上几角酸橙。 来自《简明英汉词典》
33 irresistible n4CxX     
  • The wheel of history rolls forward with an irresistible force.历史车轮滚滚向前,势不可挡。
  • She saw an irresistible skirt in the store window.她看见商店的橱窗里有一条叫人着迷的裙子。
34 devoured af343afccf250213c6b0cadbf3a346a9     
吞没( devour的过去式和过去分词 ); 耗尽; 津津有味地看; 狼吞虎咽地吃光
  • She devoured everything she could lay her hands on: books, magazines and newspapers. 无论是书、杂志,还是报纸,只要能弄得到,她都看得津津有味。
  • The lions devoured a zebra in a short time. 狮子一会儿就吃掉了一匹斑马。
35 bestowed 12e1d67c73811aa19bdfe3ae4a8c2c28     
赠给,授予( bestow的过去式和过去分词 )
  • It was a title bestowed upon him by the king. 那是国王赐给他的头衔。
  • He considered himself unworthy of the honour they had bestowed on him. 他认为自己不配得到大家赋予他的荣誉。
36 hue qdszS     
  • The diamond shone with every hue under the sun.金刚石在阳光下放出五颜六色的光芒。
  • The same hue will look different in different light.同一颜色在不同的光线下看起来会有所不同。
37 bastard MuSzK     
  • He was never concerned about being born a bastard.他从不介意自己是私生子。
  • There was supposed to be no way to get at the bastard.据说没有办法买通那个混蛋。
38 arabesques 09f66ba58977e4bbfd840987e0faecc5     
n.阿拉伯式花饰( arabesque的名词复数 );错综图饰;阿拉伯图案;阿拉贝斯克芭蕾舞姿(独脚站立,手前伸,另一脚一手向后伸)
39 overthrown 1e19c245f384e53a42f4faa000742c18     
adj. 打翻的,推倒的,倾覆的 动词overthrow的过去分词
  • The president was overthrown in a military coup. 总统在军事政变中被赶下台。
  • He has overthrown the basic standards of morality. 他已摒弃了基本的道德标准。
40 myriads d4014a179e3e97ebc9e332273dfd32a4     
n.无数,极大数量( myriad的名词复数 )
  • Each galaxy contains myriads of stars. 每一星系都有无数的恒星。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The sky was set with myriads of stars. 无数星星点缀着夜空。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
41 nave TGnxw     
  • People gathered in the nave of the house.人们聚拢在房子的中间。
  • The family on the other side of the nave had a certain look about them,too.在中殿另一边的那一家人,也有着自己特有的相貌。
42 choir sX0z5     
  • The choir sang the words out with great vigor.合唱团以极大的热情唱出了歌词。
  • The church choir is singing tonight.今晚教堂歌唱队要唱诗。
43 standing 2hCzgo     
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
44 equestrian 3PlzG     
  • They all showed extraordinary equestrian skills.他们的骑术都很高超。
  • I want to book two equestrian tickets.我想订两张马术比赛的票。
45 bishop AtNzd     
  • He was a bishop who was held in reverence by all.他是一位被大家都尊敬的主教。
  • Two years after his death the bishop was canonised.主教逝世两年后被正式封为圣者。
46 bishops 391617e5d7bcaaf54a7c2ad3fc490348     
(基督教某些教派管辖大教区的)主教( bishop的名词复数 ); (国际象棋的)象
  • Each player has two bishops at the start of the game. 棋赛开始时,每名棋手有两只象。
  • "Only sheriffs and bishops and rich people and kings, and such like. “他劫富济贫,抢的都是郡长、主教、国王之类的富人。
47 gendarmes e775b824de98b38fb18be9103d68a1d9     
n.宪兵,警官( gendarme的名词复数 )
  • Of course, the line of prisoners was guarded at all times by armed gendarmes. 当然,这一切都是在荷枪实弹的卫兵监视下进行的。 来自百科语句
  • The three men were gendarmes;the other was Jean Valjean. 那三个人是警察,另一个就是冉阿让。 来自互联网
48 copper HZXyU     
  • The students are asked to prove the purity of copper.要求学生们检验铜的纯度。
  • Copper is a good medium for the conduction of heat and electricity.铜是热和电的良导体。
49 brutally jSRya     
  • The uprising was brutally put down.起义被残酷地镇压下去了。
  • A pro-democracy uprising was brutally suppressed.一场争取民主的起义被残酷镇压了。
50 encumbered 2cc6acbd84773f26406796e78a232e40     
v.妨碍,阻碍,拖累( encumber的过去式和过去分词 )
  • The police operation was encumbered by crowds of reporters. 警方的行动被成群的记者所妨碍。
  • The narrow quay was encumbered by hundreds of carts. 狭窄的码头被数百辆手推车堵得水泄不通。 来自辞典例句
51 shrines 9ec38e53af7365fa2e189f82b1f01792     
圣地,圣坛,神圣场所( shrine的名词复数 )
  • All three structures dated to the third century and were tentatively identified as shrines. 这3座建筑都建于3 世纪,并且初步鉴定为神庙。
  • Their palaces and their shrines are tombs. 它们的宫殿和神殿成了墓穴。
52 specimen Xvtwm     
  • You'll need tweezers to hold up the specimen.你要用镊子来夹这标本。
  • This specimen is richly variegated in colour.这件标本上有很多颜色。
53 pillaged 844deb1d24d194f39d4fc705e49ecc5b     
v.抢劫,掠夺( pillage的过去式和过去分词 )
  • They are to be pillaged and terrorised in Hitler's fury and revenge. 在希特勒的狂怒和报复下,他们还遭到掠夺和恐怖统治。 来自辞典例句
  • They villages were pillaged and their crops destroyed. 他们的村子被抢,他们的庄稼被毁。 来自辞典例句
54 panes c8bd1ed369fcd03fe15520d551ab1d48     
窗玻璃( pane的名词复数 )
  • The sun caught the panes and flashed back at him. 阳光照到窗玻璃上,又反射到他身上。
  • The window-panes are dim with steam. 玻璃窗上蒙上了一层蒸汽。
55 beholding 05d0ea730b39c90ee12d6e6b8c193935     
v.看,注视( behold的现在分词 );瞧;看呀;(叙述中用于引出某人意外的出现)哎哟
  • Beholding, besides love, the end of love,/Hearing oblivion beyond memory! 我看见了爱,还看到了爱的结局,/听到了记忆外层的哪一片寂寥! 来自英汉 - 翻译样例 - 文学
  • Hence people who began by beholding him ended by perusing him. 所以人们从随便看一看他开始的,都要以仔细捉摸他而终结。 来自辞典例句
56 smeared c767e97773b70cc726f08526efd20e83     
弄脏; 玷污; 涂抹; 擦上
  • The children had smeared mud on the walls. 那几个孩子往墙上抹了泥巴。
  • A few words were smeared. 有写字被涂模糊了。
57 edifices 26c1bcdcaf99b103a92f85d17e87712e     
n.大建筑物( edifice的名词复数 )
  • They complain that the monstrous edifices interfere with television reception. 他们抱怨说,那些怪物般的庞大建筑,干扰了电视接收。 来自辞典例句
  • Wealthy officials and landlords built these queer edifices a thousand years ago. 有钱的官吏和地主在一千年前就修建了这种奇怪的建筑物。 来自辞典例句
58 infamous K7ax3     
  • He was infamous for his anti-feminist attitudes.他因反对女性主义而声名狼藉。
  • I was shocked by her infamous behaviour.她的无耻行径令我震惊。
59 ascend avnzD     
  • We watched the airplane ascend higher and higher.我们看着飞机逐渐升高。
  • We ascend in the order of time and of development.我们按时间和发展顺序向上溯。
60 intersection w54xV     
n.交集,十字路口,交叉点;[计算机] 交集
  • There is a stop sign at an intersection.在交叉路口处有停车标志。
  • Bridges are used to avoid the intersection of a railway and a highway.桥用来避免铁路和公路直接交叉。
61 pointed Il8zB4     
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
62 sonorous qFMyv     
  • The sonorous voice of the speaker echoed round the room.那位演讲人洪亮的声音在室内回荡。
  • He has a deep sonorous voice.他的声音深沉而洪亮。
63 notched ZHKx9     
  • Torino notched up a 2-1 win at Lazio. 都灵队以2 比1 赢了拉齐奧队。
  • He notched up ten points in the first five minutes of the game. 他在比赛开始后的五分钟里得了十分。
64 gnawed 85643b5b73cc74a08138f4534f41cef1     
咬( gnaw的过去式和过去分词 ); (长时间) 折磨某人; (使)苦恼; (长时间)危害某事物
  • His attitude towards her gnawed away at her confidence. 他对她的态度一直在削弱她的自尊心。
  • The root of this dead tree has been gnawed away by ants. 这棵死树根被蚂蚁唼了。
65 grotesque O6ryZ     
  • His face has a grotesque appearance.他的面部表情十分怪。
  • Her account of the incident was a grotesque distortion of the truth.她对这件事的陈述是荒诞地歪曲了事实。
66 deviations 02ee50408d4c28684c509a0539908669     
背离,偏离( deviation的名词复数 ); 离经叛道的行为
  • Local deviations depend strongly on the local geometry of the solid matrix. 局部偏离严格地依赖于固体矩阵的局部几何形状。
  • They were a series of tactical day-to-day deviations from White House policy. 它们是一系列策略上一天天摆脱白宫政策的偏向。
67 renaissance PBdzl     
  • The Renaissance was an epoch of unparalleled cultural achievement.文艺复兴是一个文化上取得空前成就的时代。
  • The theme of the conference is renaissance Europe.大会的主题是文艺复兴时期的欧洲。
68 decadence taLyZ     
  • The decadence of morals is bad for a nation.道德的堕落对国家是不利的。
  • His article has the power to turn decadence into legend.他的文章具有化破朽为神奇的力量。
69 wrought EoZyr     
  • Events in Paris wrought a change in British opinion towards France and Germany.巴黎发生的事件改变了英国对法国和德国的看法。
  • It's a walking stick with a gold head wrought in the form of a flower.那是一个金质花形包头的拐杖。
70 slashed 8ff3ba5a4258d9c9f9590cbbb804f2db     
v.挥砍( slash的过去式和过去分词 );鞭打;割破;削减
  • Someone had slashed the tyres on my car. 有人把我的汽车轮胎割破了。
  • He slashed the bark off the tree with his knife. 他用刀把树皮从树上砍下。 来自《简明英汉词典》
71 consistency IY2yT     
  • Your behaviour lacks consistency.你的行为缺乏一贯性。
  • We appreciate the consistency and stability in China and in Chinese politics.我们赞赏中国及其政策的连续性和稳定性。
72 presumption XQcxl     
  • Please pardon my presumption in writing to you.请原谅我很冒昧地写信给你。
  • I don't think that's a false presumption.我认为那并不是错误的推测。
73 miserable g18yk     
  • It was miserable of you to make fun of him.你取笑他,这是可耻的。
  • Her past life was miserable.她过去的生活很苦。
74 ornaments 2bf24c2bab75a8ff45e650a1e4388dec     
n.装饰( ornament的名词复数 );点缀;装饰品;首饰v.装饰,点缀,美化( ornament的第三人称单数 )
  • The shelves were chock-a-block with ornaments. 架子上堆满了装饰品。
  • Playing the piano sets up resonance in those glass ornaments. 一弹钢琴那些玻璃饰物就会产生共振。 来自《简明英汉词典》
75 oratory HJ7xv     
  • I admire the oratory of some politicians.我佩服某些政治家的辩才。
  • He dazzled the crowd with his oratory.他的雄辩口才使听众赞叹不已。
76 grimacing bf9222142df61c434d658b6986419fc3     
v.扮鬼相,做鬼脸( grimace的现在分词 )
  • But then Boozer drove past Gasol for a rattling, grimacing slam dunk. 可布泽尔单吃家嫂,以一记强有力的扣篮将比分超出。 来自互联网
  • The martyrdom of Archbishop Cranmer, said the don at last, grimacing with embarrassment. 最后那位老师尴尬地做个鬼脸,说,这是大主教克莱默的殉道士。 来自互联网
77 ravages 5d742bcf18f0fd7c4bc295e4f8d458d8     
  • the ravages of war 战争造成的灾难
  • It is hard for anyone to escape from the ravages of time. 任何人都很难逃避时间的摧残。
78 warts b5d5eab9e823b8f3769fad05f1f2d423     
n.疣( wart的名词复数 );肉赘;树瘤;缺点
  • You agreed to marry me, warts and all! 是你同意和我结婚的,我又没掩饰缺陷。 来自辞典例句
  • Talk about trying to cure warts with spunk-water such a blame fool way as that! 用那样糊涂蛋的方法还谈什么仙水治疣子! 来自英汉文学 - 汤姆历险
79 epidermis AZhzW     
  • The external layer of skin is called the epidermis.皮的外层叫表皮。
  • There is a neoplasm originating in his leg's epidermis.他的腿上有个生长在表皮上的肿瘤。
80 joints d97dcffd67eca7255ca514e4084b746e     
接头( joint的名词复数 ); 关节; 公共场所(尤指价格低廉的饮食和娱乐场所) (非正式); 一块烤肉 (英式英语)
  • Expansion joints of various kinds are fitted on gas mains. 各种各样的伸缩接头被安装在煤气的总管道上了。
  • Expansion joints of various kinds are fitted on steam pipes. 各种各样的伸缩接头被安装在蒸气管道上了。
81 barbarian nyaz13     
  • There is a barbarian tribe living in this forest.有一个原始部落居住在这个林区。
  • The walled city was attacked by barbarian hordes.那座有城墙的城市遭到野蛮部落的袭击。
82 slain slain     
杀死,宰杀,杀戮( slay的过去分词 ); (slay的过去分词)
  • The soldiers slain in the battle were burried that night. 在那天夜晚埋葬了在战斗中牺牲了的战士。
  • His boy was dead, slain by the hand of the false Amulius. 他的儿子被奸诈的阿缪利乌斯杀死了。
83 devastate PZRzy     
  • A few days before,a fire had devastated large parts of Windsor Castle.几天前,温莎城堡的大部分被一场大火烧毁。
  • Earthquakes can also cause tsunamis,which devastate coastal regions.地震还引发海啸,它直接破坏海岸地区。
84 impartiality 5b49bb7ab0b3222fd7bf263721e2169d     
n. 公平, 无私, 不偏
  • He shows impartiality and detachment. 他表现得不偏不倚,超然事外。
  • Impartiality is essential to a judge. 公平是当法官所必需的。
85 licensed ipMzNI     
  • The new drug has not yet been licensed in the US. 这种新药尚未在美国获得许可。
  • Is that gun licensed? 那支枪有持枪执照吗?
86 caterpillars 7673bc2d84c4c7cba4a0eaec866310f4     
n.毛虫( caterpillar的名词复数 );履带
  • Caterpillars eat the young leaves of this plant. 毛毛虫吃这种植物的嫩叶。
  • Caterpillars change into butterflies or moths. 毛虫能变成蝴蝶或蛾子。 来自辞典例句
87 lauded b67508c0ca90664fe666700495cd0226     
v.称赞,赞美( laud的过去式和过去分词 )
  • They lauded the former president as a hero. 他们颂扬前总统为英雄。 来自辞典例句
  • The nervy feats of the mountaineers were lauded. 登山者有勇气的壮举受到赞美。 来自辞典例句
88 vault 3K3zW     
  • The vault of this cathedral is very high.这座天主教堂的拱顶非常高。
  • The old patrician was buried in the family vault.这位老贵族埋在家族的墓地里。
89 simplicity Vryyv     
  • She dressed with elegant simplicity.她穿着朴素高雅。
  • The beauty of this plan is its simplicity.简明扼要是这个计划的一大特点。
90 progenitor 2iiyD     
  • He was also a progenitor of seven presidents of Nicaragua.他也是尼加拉瓜7任总统的祖先。
  • Schoenberg was a progenitor of modern music.勋伯格是一位现代音乐的先驱。
91 bristling tSqyl     
  • "Don't you question Miz Wilkes' word,'said Archie, his beard bristling. "威尔克斯太太的话,你就不必怀疑了。 "阿尔奇说。他的胡子也翘了起来。
  • You were bristling just now. 你刚才在发毛。
92 hieroglyph YdBxN     
n.象形文字, 图画文字
  • Each picture,or hieroglyph,represents either an idea or a sound.每一图画或者每一个象形代表着一种想法或者一种声音。
  • The hieroglyph for"king's son"can be translated as "son-in-law" or "grandfather".象形文字“国王的儿子”还可译为“女婿”或“祖父”。
93 hieroglyphics 875efb138c1099851d6647d532c0036f     
  • Hieroglyphics are carved into the walls of the temple. 寺庙的墙壁上刻着象形文字。
  • His writing is so bad it just looks like hieroglyphics to me. 他写的糟透了,对我来说就像天书一样。
94 hieroglyphic 5dKxO     
  • For centuries hieroglyphic word pictures painted on Egyptian ruins were a mystery.几世纪以来,刻划在埃及废墟中的象形文字一直是个谜。
  • Dongba is an ancient hieroglyphic language.东巴文是中国一种古老的象形文字。
95 symbolical nrqwT     
  • The power of the monarchy in Britain today is more symbolical than real. 今日英国君主的权力多为象徵性的,无甚实际意义。
  • The Lord introduces the first symbolical language in Revelation. 主说明了启示录中第一个象徵的语言。
96 zigzags abaf3e38b28a59d9998c85607babdaee     
n.锯齿形的线条、小径等( zigzag的名词复数 )v.弯弯曲曲地走路,曲折地前进( zigzag的第三人称单数 )
  • The path descended the hill in a series of zigzags. 小路呈连续的之字形顺着山坡蜿蜒而下。
  • History moves in zigzags and by roundabout ways. 历史的发展是曲折的,迂回的。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
97 transformation SnFwO     
  • Going to college brought about a dramatic transformation in her outlook.上大学使她的观念发生了巨大的变化。
  • He was struggling to make the transformation from single man to responsible husband.他正在努力使自己由单身汉变为可靠的丈夫。
98 theocratic d2a97031b61665441ee994e2c7847117     
  • The priest caste wields considerable power in this rigidly theocratic society. 祭司阶层(priestcaste)在这个严格的神权社会中掌握着相当大的权力。 来自互联网
  • The heartland of Islam, by contrast, is theocratic. 相反,伊斯兰教的核心地带则是神权政治。 来自互联网
99 conqueror PY3yI     
  • We shall never yield to a conqueror.我们永远不会向征服者低头。
  • They abandoned the city to the conqueror.他们把那个城市丢弃给征服者。
100 communal VbcyU     
  • There was a communal toilet on the landing for the four flats.在楼梯平台上有一处公共卫生间供4套公寓使用。
  • The toilets and other communal facilities were in a shocking state.厕所及其他公共设施的状况极其糟糕。
101 bourgeois ERoyR     
  • He's accusing them of having a bourgeois and limited vision.他指责他们像中产阶级一样目光狭隘。
  • The French Revolution was inspired by the bourgeois.法国革命受到中产阶级的鼓励。
102 artistic IeWyG     
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
103 dart oydxK     
  • The child made a sudden dart across the road.那小孩突然冲过马路。
  • Markov died after being struck by a poison dart.马尔科夫身中毒镖而亡。
104 upwards lj5wR     
  • The trend of prices is still upwards.物价的趋向是仍在上涨。
  • The smoke rose straight upwards.烟一直向上升。
105 graft XQBzg     
  • I am having a skin graft on my arm soon.我马上就要接受手臂的皮肤移植手术。
  • The minister became rich through graft.这位部长透过贪污受贿致富。
106 attains 7244c7c9830392f8f3df1cb8d96b91df     
(通常经过努力)实现( attain的第三人称单数 ); 达到; 获得; 达到(某年龄、水平、状况)
  • This is the period at which the body attains maturity. 这是身体发育成熟的时期。
  • The temperature a star attains is determined by its mass. 恒星所达到的温度取决于它的质量。
107 delicacy mxuxS     
  • We admired the delicacy of the craftsmanship.我们佩服工艺师精巧的手艺。
  • He sensed the delicacy of the situation.他感觉到了形势的微妙。
108 compendium xXay7     
  • The Compendium of Materia Medica has been held in high esteem since it was first published.“本草纲目”问世之后,深受人们的推重。
  • The book is a compendium of their poetry,religion and philosophy.这本书是他们诗歌、宗教和哲学的概略。
109 prelude 61Fz6     
  • The prelude to the musical composition is very long.这首乐曲的序曲很长。
  • The German invasion of Poland was a prelude to World War II.德国入侵波兰是第二次世界大战的序幕。
110 unity 4kQwT     
  • When we speak of unity,we do not mean unprincipled peace.所谓团结,并非一团和气。
  • We must strengthen our unity in the face of powerful enemies.大敌当前,我们必须加强团结。
111 schism kZ8xh     
  • The church seems to be on the brink of schism.教会似乎处于分裂的边缘。
  • While some predict schism,others predict a good old fashioned compromise.在有些人预测分裂的同时,另一些人预测了有益的老式妥协。
112 mingle 3Dvx8     
  • If we mingle with the crowd,we should not be noticed.如果我们混在人群中,就不会被注意到。
  • Oil will not mingle with water.油和水不相融。
113 mingled fdf34efd22095ed7e00f43ccc823abdf     
混合,混入( mingle的过去式和过去分词 ); 混进,与…交往[联系]
  • The sounds of laughter and singing mingled in the evening air. 笑声和歌声交织在夜空中。
  • The man and the woman mingled as everyone started to relax. 当大家开始放松的时候,这一男一女就开始交往了。
114 amalgamated ed85e8e23651662e5e12b2453a8d0f6f     
v.(使)(金属)汞齐化( amalgamate的过去式和过去分词 );(使)合并;联合;结合
  • The company has now amalgamated with another local firm. 这家公司现在已与当地一家公司合并了。
  • Those two organizations have been amalgamated into single one. 那两个组织已合并为一个组织。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
115 amalgamate XxwzQ     
  • Their company is planning to amalgamate with ours.他们公司正计划同我们公司合并。
  • The unions will attempt to amalgamate their groups into one national body.工会将试图合并其群体纳入一个国家机构。
116 chimera DV3yw     
  • Religious unity remained as much a chimera as ever.宗教统一仍然和从前一样,不过是个妄想。
  • I am fighting against my chimera.我在与狂想抗争。
117 hybrid pcBzu     
  • That is a hybrid perpetual rose.那是一株杂交的四季开花的蔷薇。
  • The hybrid was tall,handsome,and intelligent.那混血儿高大、英俊、又聪明。
118 primitive vSwz0     
  • It is a primitive instinct to flee a place of danger.逃离危险的地方是一种原始本能。
  • His book describes the march of the civilization of a primitive society.他的著作描述了一个原始社会的开化过程。
119 vestiges abe7c965ff1797742478ada5aece0ed3     
残余部分( vestige的名词复数 ); 遗迹; 痕迹; 毫不
  • the last vestiges of the old colonial regime 旧殖民制度最后的残余
  • These upright stones are the vestiges of some ancient religion. 这些竖立的石头是某种古代宗教的遗迹。
120 residue 6B0z1     
  • Mary scraped the residue of food from the plates before putting them under water.玛丽在把盘子放入水之前先刮去上面的食物残渣。
  • Pesticide persistence beyond the critical period for control leads to residue problems.农药一旦超过控制的临界期,就会导致残留问题。
121 beavers 87070e8082105b943967bbe495b7d9f7     
海狸( beaver的名词复数 ); 海狸皮毛; 棕灰色; 拼命工作的人
  • In 1928 some porpoises were photographed working like beavers to push ashore a waterlogged mattress. 1928年有人把这些海豚象海狸那样把一床浸泡了水的褥垫推上岸时的情景拍摄了下来。
  • Thus do the beavers, thus do the bees, thus do men. 海狸是这样做的,蜜蜂是这样做的,人也是这样做的。
122 pending uMFxw     
  • The lawsuit is still pending in the state court.这案子仍在州法庭等待定夺。
  • He knew my examination was pending.他知道我就要考试了。
123 accomplished UzwztZ     
  • Thanks to your help,we accomplished the task ahead of schedule.亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
  • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator.通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
124 effaced 96bc7c37d0e2e4d8665366db4bc7c197     
v.擦掉( efface的过去式和过去分词 );抹去;超越;使黯然失色
  • Someone has effaced part of the address on his letter. 有人把他信上的一部分地址擦掉了。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • The name of the ship had been effaced from the menus. 那艘船的名字已经从菜单中删除了。 来自辞典例句
125 Christian KVByl     
  • They always addressed each other by their Christian name.他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  • His mother is a sincere Christian.他母亲是个虔诚的基督教徒。
126 perfectly 8Mzxb     
  • The witnesses were each perfectly certain of what they said.证人们个个对自己所说的话十分肯定。
  • Everything that we're doing is all perfectly above board.我们做的每件事情都是光明正大的。
127 spectrum Trhy6     
  • This is a kind of atomic spectrum.这是一种原子光谱。
  • We have known much of the constitution of the solar spectrum.关于太阳光谱的构成,我们已了解不少。
128 plunged 06a599a54b33c9d941718dccc7739582     
v.颠簸( plunge的过去式和过去分词 );暴跌;骤降;突降
  • The train derailed and plunged into the river. 火车脱轨栽进了河里。
  • She lost her balance and plunged 100 feet to her death. 她没有站稳,从100英尺的高处跌下摔死了。
129 entirely entirely     
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
130 derived 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2     
vi.起源;由来;衍生;导出v.得到( derive的过去式和过去分词 );(从…中)得到获得;源于;(从…中)提取
  • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英语很多词源出于拉丁文和希腊文。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他对文学的爱好是受他父亲的影响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
131 precisely zlWzUb     
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那种油腔滑调的推销宣传。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那个人调得很准。
132 embroidered StqztZ     
  • She embroidered flowers on the cushion covers. 她在这些靠垫套上绣了花。
  • She embroidered flowers on the front of the dress. 她在连衣裙的正面绣花。
133 rudiment TCMzf     
  • The rudiment with the capitalism,new developing citizens stratum appeared in the society in the ming dynasty.伴随着资本主义的萌芽,明代社会出现了新兴的市民阶层。
  • It do not take me long to pick up the rudiment of the language.我没有费多少时间就学会了这一语言的初步知识。
134 naves 4932fc033ac7d714aff298dfe6de4fdf     
n.教堂正厅( nave的名词复数 );本堂;中央部;车轮的中心部
  • It's structured as a Latin cross with three naves divided by pillars. 教堂的形状更是以古老的拉丁十字为基础,内部由一根根地石柱隔成三条长廊。 来自互联网
135 aisles aisles     
n. (席位间的)通道, 侧廊
  • Aisles were added to the original Saxon building in the Norman period. 在诺曼时期,原来的萨克森风格的建筑物都增添了走廊。
  • They walked about the Abbey aisles, and presently sat down. 他们走到大教堂的走廊附近,并且很快就坐了下来。
136 chapels 93d40e7c6d7bdd896fdd5dbc901f41b8     
n.小教堂, (医院、监狱等的)附属礼拜堂( chapel的名词复数 );(在小教堂和附属礼拜堂举行的)礼拜仪式
  • Both castles had their own chapels too, which was incredible to see. 两个城堡都有自己的礼拜堂,非常华美。 来自互联网
  • It has an ambulatory and seven chapels. 它有一条走廊和七个小教堂。 来自互联网
137 promenades e9e1a7b588956115c398fd8f01ebb0bf     
n.人行道( promenade的名词复数 );散步场所;闲逛v.兜风( promenade的第三人称单数 )
  • He often promenades his wife along the Thames Embankment. 他常常带太太沿着泰晤士河堤防散步。 来自辞典例句
  • Stoas lined marketplaces and sanctuaries and formed places of Business and public promenades. 柱廊围绕在市场和神庙的四周,是交易和公众散步的场所。 来自互联网
138 pinnacles a4409b051276579e99d5cb7d58643f4e     
顶峰( pinnacle的名词复数 ); 顶点; 尖顶; 小尖塔
  • What would be the pinnacles of your acting and music? 对你而言什麽代表你的演技和音乐的巅峰?
  • On Skye's Trotternish Peninsula, basalt pinnacles loom over the Sound of Raasay. 在斯开岛的特洛登尼许半岛,玄武岩尖塔俯瞰着拉塞海峡。
139 infinity o7QxG     
  • It is impossible to count up to infinity.不可能数到无穷大。
  • Theoretically,a line can extend into infinity.从理论上来说直线可以无限地延伸。
140 exterior LlYyr     
  • The seed has a hard exterior covering.这种子外壳很硬。
  • We are painting the exterior wall of the house.我们正在给房子的外墙涂漆。
141 foliage QgnzK     
  • The path was completely covered by the dense foliage.小路被树叶厚厚地盖了一层。
  • Dark foliage clothes the hills.浓密的树叶覆盖着群山。


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