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CHAPTER VIII.
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CHAPTER VIII.
SUNDAY OBSERVANCE UNKNOWN TO CHRISTIANITY BEFORE THE MIDDLE OF THE SECOND CENTURY.

Mistaken Notions Concerning the Beginning of Sunday Observance—No Sunday Observance in the New Testament2—Sunday Directly Referred to but Three Times—It is Never Spoken of as a Sabbath, nor as Commemorative of Christ’s Resurrection—The Bible does not State that Christ Rose on Sunday—Christ and His Disciples3 Always Observed the Sabbath—The “Change of the Sabbath” Unknown in the New Testament—The Sabbath Never Called “Jewish” in the Scriptures4, nor by Any Writer until after Paganism had Invaded the Church—Origin of Sunday Observance Found in Paganism—First Reference to Sunday Observance about 150 A.D.—No Writer of the Early Centuries Claimed Scriptural Reasons for Its Observance—Pagan Reasons and Arguments Adduced in Its Support; a Day of “Indulgence to the Flesh”—Pretended Scriptural Reasons, ex post facto.

There are few if any questions concerning which popular notions and ultimate facts are more at variance6 than the question of the early observance of Sunday. It is not uncommon7 for men to assert that “Sunday has been observed as the Christian1 Sabbath ever since the resurrection of Christ”; while the fact is, that the first authentic8 and definite statement concerning Sunday observance was made by Justin Martyr9 as late as 150 A.D. Even if we accept the passage quoted from[172] the Didache, the portion of that document in which the reference occurs cannot be placed earlier than 150, and it is probably much later. Since the facts as they appear in the New Testament can be easily obtained, I shall take only space enough to state them briefly10.

“The first day of the week,” Sunday, is definitely referred to but three times in the New Testament. Each of the Evangelists speaks of the day on which Christ’s resurrection was made known to His disciples. These references are all to the same day.[161] The book of Acts has but one reference to Sunday[162]; and there is but one in all the Epistles.[163] Three other passages are quoted in favor of Sunday observance.[164]

It is so easy for the reader to examine these passages, and to compare them with popular notions and with what is said here, that I shall be content with the following summary of facts touching11 Sunday observance in the New Testament:

Six passages are quoted in favor of such observance. Only three of these passages mention the first day of the week in any manner. Neither of them speaks of it as sabbatic, or as commemorative of any event, or sacred, or to be regarded above[173] other days, and it is only by vague and illogical inferences that either of them is made to produce a shadow of proof for such a change. Concerning the other three, it is only supposed by the advocates of the popular theory, that they in some way refer to the first day. To this, therefore, does the “argument from example” come, when carefully examined. The New Testament never speaks of, or hints at, a change of the Sabbath; it contains no notice of any commemorative or sabbatic observance of Sunday. It does tell of the repeated and continued observance of the Sabbath by Christ and His Apostles. Will the reader please examine the Bible to see whether these things are so. Sunday is a myth, as far as the Bible is concerned, and the theory of a “change of the Sabbath by divine authority,” had its birth with English Puritanism less than three hundred years ago.
Christ’s Resurrection and Sunday.

Another popular notion is equally unsupported by New Testament history. The Bible never associates the observance of Sunday, or of any other day, with the resurrection of Christ. The Bible does not state that Christ rose from the grave on Sunday. The most that can be said on this point is, that when the friends of Christ first came to the tomb it was empty. He had risen and[174] gone. Matthew xxviii., 1, shows that the first visit was made ‘late on the Sabbath,’ i. e. on Saturday afternoon before sunset, at which time the tomb was empty.[165]

All references to Sunday are fully12 accounted for on other considerations than that it was a sacred or a commemorative day. New Testament arguments in favor of Sunday observance are all ex post facto; they were developed after the practice had been initiated13 for other reasons.
The Sabbath in the New Testament.

The history of the Sabbath in the New Testament is as much at variance with popular notions as is the history of Sunday. The statement sometimes made that “The Sabbath was never observed after the resurrection of Christ,” contains as much error as can be put into that number of words. Since the facts are in the hands of every reader of the New Testament, only a general summary of them is given here.

Collating14 the facts, and summing up the case as regards the example of Christ and His Apostles, it stands as follows:

1. During the life of Christ the Sabbath was always observed by Him and by His followers15.[175] He corrected the errors and false notions which were held concerning it, but gave no hint that it was to be abrogated16.

2. The book of Acts gives a connected history of the recognition and observance of the Sabbath by the Apostles while they were organizing many of the churches spoken of in the New Testament. These references extend over a period of eight or nine years, the last of them being at least twenty years after the resurrection.

3. In all the history of the doings and teachings of the Apostles, there is not the remotest reference to the abrogation17 of the Sabbath.

Had there been any change made or beginning to be made, or any authority for the abrogation of the Sabbath law, the Apostles must have known it. To claim that there was is therefore to charge them with studiously concealing18 the truth. And also, with recognizing and calling a day the Sabbath which was not the Sabbath.

Add to these considerations the following facts:

(a) The latest books of the New Testament, including the Gospel of John, were written about the year ninety-five or later. In none of these is there any trace of the change of the Sabbath, nor is the abrogation of the Sabbath law taught in them.

(b) The Sabbath is mentioned in the New Testament sixty times, and always in its appropriate character.

[176]

Thus the law and the gospel are in harmony, and teach that “the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God.”

But some will say, “Christ and His Apostles did all this as Jews, simply.” If this be true, then Christ lived and taught simply as a Jew and not as the Saviour20 of the world. On the contrary, He was at war with the false and extravagant21 notions of Judaism concerning questions of truth and duty. If Christ were not a “Christian,” but a “Jew,” what becomes of the system which He taught? If His first followers, who perilled22 all for Him and sealed their faith with their blood, were only Jews, or worse, were dissemblers, doing that which Christians23 ought not to do, for sake of policy, where shall Christians be found? The assumption dies of its own inconsistency. More than this, New Testament history repeatedly states that the Greeks were taught on the Sabbath the same as the Jews; and in those churches where the Greek element predominated there is no trace of any different teaching or custom on this point. The Jewish Christians kept up their national institutions, for a time, such as circumcision and the passover, while all Christians accepted the Sabbath as a part of the law of God. The popular outcry against the Sabbath as “Jewish” is unscriptural. Christ was in all respects, as regards nationality, a Jew. So[177] were all the writers of the Old Testament, and all the writers of the New Testament. God has given the world no word of inspiration in the Bible, from Gentile pen, or Gentile lips. Is the Bible therefore “Jewish”? The Sabbath, if possible, is less Jewish than the Bible. It had its beginning long before a Jew was born. It is God’s day marked by His own example, and sanctified by His blessing25, for the race of man, beginning when the race began, and can end only when the race shall cease to exist. Christ recognized it under the Gospel as He recognized each of the other eternal laws with which it is associated in the Decalogue; recognized them as the everlasting26 words of His Father, whose law He came to magnify and fulfil. It is manifestly unjust and unchristian to attempt to thrust out and stigmatize27 any part of God’s truth as “Jewish,” when all of God’s promises and all Bible truths have come to us through the Hebrew nation.[166]

As we were compelled to go outside the Bible to find the influences which undermined the Decalogue and the Sabbath, so we must seek for the origin of Sunday observance outside of that book.[178] We find the first mention of such observance, and of reasons therefor, in the same author, Justin, who we have seen was the first to formulate28 the anti-law and anti-Sabbath doctrines29 which have already been examined.[167]

This earliest reference to Sunday observance is found in Justin’s Apology as follows:

“On the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the Country, gather together to one place, and the memoirs31 of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read as long as time permits; then when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs and exhorts32 to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread, and wine, and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent33 saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation34 of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans35 and widows, and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds, and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold[179] our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought36 a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn37 (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration.”[168]

There is nothing scriptural in the reasons given by Justin; the first is purely38 fanciful, and is in accord with the prevailing39 gnostic speculations40 of those times. His statement that Christ was crucified on Friday is the beginning of a popular error, which has come down, not unchallenged, but largely uninvestigated. Some writers claim that the last clause intends to state that Christ taught His disciples when He first appeared to them, what Justin had written concerning the Sunday; but one has only to read Justin’s words to see how entirely42 unfounded such a claim is. At all events, there is not a word in Scripture5 to support the reasons adduced by Justin for Sunday observance.

It is important that the reader note carefully what sort of Sunday observance Justin describes. Laying aside all “suppositions,” and “inferences,” and ex-post-facto conclusions, we learn from him[180] that at the middle of the second century a form of religious service was held on Sunday. But it is equally evident that there was no sabbatic regard for the day. Sir William Domville summarizes the case as follows:

“This inference appears irresistible43 when we further consider that Justin, in this part of his Apology, is professedly intending to describe the mode in which Christians observed the Sunday.... He evidently intends to give all information requisite44 to an accurate knowledge of the subject he treats upon. He is even so particular as to tell the Emperor why the Sunday was observed; and he does, in fact, specify45 every active duty belonging to the day, the Scripture reading, the exhortation46, the public prayer, the Sacrament, and the alms-giving: why then should he not also inform the Emperor of the one inactive duty of the day, the duty of abstaining47 from doing in it any manner of work? The Emperor well knew that such abstinence was the custom of all his Jewish subjects on the Saturday (die Saturni), and could readily have understood it to be the custom of his Christian subjects on the Sunday (die Solis, as Justin calls it in his Apology), and, therefore, if such was the custom of Christians in Justin’s time, his description of their Sunday duties was essentially49 defective50. It is not, however, at all probable that he would intend to omit noticing so important a characteristic of the day, as the Sabbatical observance of it, if it was in fact Sabbatically observed. But even were it probable he should intend to omit all mention of it in his Apology to the Emperor, it would be impossible to imagine any sufficient cause for his remaining silent on the[181] subject in his Dialogue with Trypho the Jew; and this whether the Dialogue was real or imaginary, for if the latter, Justin would still, as Dr. Lardner has observed, ‘choose to write in character.’... The testimony51 of Justin, therefore, proves most clearly two facts of great importance in the Sabbath controversy52: the one, that the Christians in his time observed the Sunday as a prayer day; the other, that they did not observe it as a Sabbath-day.”[169]

Such is the summary of the case at the year 150 A.D. No-Sabbathism and a form of Sunday observance were born at the same time. Trained in heathen philosophies until manhood, Justin accepted Christianity as a better philosophy than he had before found. Such a man and those like him could scarcely do other than build a system quite unlike apostolic Christianity. That which they did build was a paganized rather than an apostolic type.
Pagan Reasons for Observing Sunday.

Pagan philosophy as a source of argument in favor of the observance of Sunday is made still more prominent by Clement53 of Alexandria, as follows:

“And the Lord’s day Plato prophetically speaks of in the tenth book of the Republic, in these words: ‘And when seven days have passed to each of them in the[182] meadow, on the eighth they are to set out and arrive in four days.’ By the meadow is to be understood the fixed54 sphere, as being a mild and genial55 spot, and the locality of the pious56; and by the seven days each motion of the seven planets, and the whole practical art which speeds to the end of rest. But after the wandering orbs57 the journey leads to heaven, that is, to the eighth motion and day. And he says that souls are gone on the fourth day, pointing out the passage through the four elements. But the seventh day is recognized as sacred, not by the Hebrews only, but also by the Greeks; according to which the whole world of all animals and plants revolve59. Hesiod says of it:

“‘The first, and fourth, and seventh day were held sacred.’

“And again:

“‘And on the seventh the sun’s resplendent orb58.’

“And Homer:

“‘And on the seventh, then came the sacred day.’

“And:

“‘The seventh was sacred.’

“And again:

“‘It was the seventh day, and all things were accomplished60.’

“And again:

“‘And on the seventh morn we leave the stream of Acheron.’

“Callimachus the poet also writes:

“‘It was the seventh morn, and they had all things done.’

“And again:

“‘Among good days is the seventh day, and the seventh race.’

“And:

“‘The seventh is among the prime, and the seventh is perfect.’

[183]

“And:
“‘Now all the seven were made in starry61 heaven,
In circles shining as the years appear.’

“The Elegies62 of Solon, too, intensely deify the seventh day. And how? Is it not similar to Scripture when it says, ‘Let us remove the righteous man from us, because he is troublesome to us?’ When Plato, all but predicting the economy of salvation63, says in the second book of the Republic, as follows: ‘Thus he who is constituted just shall be scourged64, shall be stretched on the rack, shall be bound, have his eyes put out; and, at last, having suffered all evils, shall be crucified.’”[170]

A similar combination of pagan error and wild speculation41 is found in another of Clement’s works, where he discusses reasons for fasting on Wednesday and on Friday, and also considers how one may keep Sunday. Writing of the “True Gnostic,” Clement says:

“He knows also the enigmas65 of the fasting of those days—I mean the Fourth and the Preparation. For the one has its name from Hermes, and the other from Aphrodite. He fasts in his life, in respect of covetousness66 and voluptuousness67, from which all the vices68 grow. For we have already often above shown the three varieties of fornication, according to the apostle—love of pleasure, love of money, idolatry. He fasts then, according to the law, abstaining from bad deeds, and according to the perfection of the Gospel, from evil thoughts. Temptations are applied69 to him, not for his purification, but, as we have[184] said, for the good of his neighbors, if, making trial of toils70 and pains, he has despised and passed them by.

“The same holds of pleasure. For it is the highest achievement for one who has had trial of it, afterwards to abstain48. For what great thing is it, if a man restrains himself in what he knows not? He, in fulfilment of the precept71 according to the Gospel, keeps the Lord’s day, when he abandons an evil disposition72, and assumes that of the Gnostic, glorifying73 the Lord’s resurrection in himself. Further also when he has received the comprehension of scientific speculation, he deems that he sees the Lord, directing his eyes towards things invisible, although he seems to look on what he does not wish to look on; chastising74 the faculty75 of vision, when he perceives himself pleasurably affected76 by the application of his eyes; since he wishes to see and hear that alone which concerns him.”[171]
Clement on the Sabbath Law.

Prominent examples of paganism are found in Clement’s Gnostic Exposition of the Decalogue. Discoursing77 upon the Fourth Commandment, he says:

“Having reached this point, we must mention these things by the way, since the discourse78 has turned on the seventh and the eighth. For the eighth may possibly turn out to be properly the seventh, and the seventh manifestly the sixth, and the latter properly the Sabbath, and the seventh a day of work. For the creation of the world was concluded in six days. For the motion of the[185] sun from solstice to solstice is completed in six months, in the course of which, at one time the leaves fall, and at another plants bud and seeds come to maturity79. And they say that the embryo80 is perfected exactly in the sixth month, that is, in one hundred and eighty days in addition to the two and a half, as Polybus the physician relates in his book On the Eighth Month, and Aristotle the philosopher in his book On Nature. Hence the Pythagoreans, as I think, reckon six the perfect number, from the creation of the world, according to the prophet, and call it Meseuthys and Marriage, from its being the middle of the even numbers, that is, of ten and two. For it is manifestly at an equal distance from both.”[172]

The next paragraph is too gross to appear in this place. Toward the close of this learned (?) “exposition,” Clement gives birth to the following curious argument from the Psalms81:

“And the blessed David delivers clearly to those who know the mystic account of seven and eight, praising thus: ‘Our years were exercised like a spider. The days of our years in them are seventy years; but if in strength, eighty years. And that will be to reign82.’ That, then, we may be taught that the world was originated, and not suppose that God made it in time, prophecy adds: ‘This is the book of the generation, also of the things in them, when they were created in the day that God made heaven and earth.’ For the expression, ‘when they were created’ intimates an indefinite and dateless production. But the expression ‘in the day that God made,’ that is, in and by[186] which God made ‘all things,’ and ‘without which not even one thing was made,’ points out the activity exerted by the Son. As David says, ‘This is the day which the Lord hath made; let us be glad and rejoice in it’; that is, in consequence of the knowledge imparted by Him, let us celebrate the divine festival; for the Word that throws light on things hidden, and by whom each created thing came into life and being, is called day. And in fine, the Decalogue, by the letter Iota83, signifies the blessed name, presenting Jesus, who is the Word.”[173]

Pagan nonsense could scarcely go further, and yet this man wielded84 a prominent influence in developing the doctrine30 of Sunday Observance.
Tertullian on the Sabbath.

Tertullian was a prolific85 writer, and one not noted86 for consistency24. He taught the abolition87 of the Sabbath (see Against the Jews, chapter iv.), and refers to the observance of Sunday without giving formal reasons therefor. But incidental references which he makes show how the Sunday, although it had then come to be called the “Lord’s Day,” still bore the heathen characteristics. Witness the following:

“The Holy Spirit upbraids88 the Jews with their holy-days. ‘Your Sabbaths, and new moons, and ceremonies,’ says He, ‘My soul hateth.’ By us, to whom Sabbaths are strange, and the new moons and festivals formerly89 beloved[187] by God, the Saturnalia and New-Year’s and Midwinter’s festivals and Matronalia are frequented—presents come and go—New-Year’s Gifts—games join their noise—banquets join their din19! Oh, better fidelity90 of the nations to their own sect91, which claims no solemnity of the Christians for itself! Not the Lord’s day, not Pentecost, even if they had known them, would they have shared with us; for they would not fear lest they would seem to be Christians. We are not apprehensive92 least we seem to be heathens! If any indulgence is to be granted to the flesh, you have it. I will not say your own days, but more too; for to the heathens, each festive93 day occurs but once annually94; you have a festive day every eighth day. Call out the individual solemnities of the nations and set them out into a row, they will not be able to make up a Pentecost.”[174]

Here we have the native character of the Sunday truly set forth95; a day of “indulgence to the flesh.” Such was the legitimate96, the unavoidable fruitage of this semi-pagan festivalism, a fruitage which poisoned the Church rapidly and almost fatally.

It is enough to add under this head, that no writer of the first three hundred years gives, or attempts to give, a scriptural reason for observing Sunday. There are no such reasons to give.

点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 Christian KVByl     
adj.基督教徒的;n.基督教徒
参考例句:
  • They always addressed each other by their Christian name.他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  • His mother is a sincere Christian.他母亲是个虔诚的基督教徒。
2 testament yyEzf     
n.遗嘱;证明
参考例句:
  • This is his last will and testament.这是他的遗愿和遗嘱。
  • It is a testament to the power of political mythology.这说明,编造政治神话可以产生多大的威力。
3 disciples e24b5e52634d7118146b7b4e56748cac     
n.信徒( disciple的名词复数 );门徒;耶稣的信徒;(尤指)耶稣十二门徒之一
参考例句:
  • Judas was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. 犹大是耶稣十二门徒之一。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • "The names of the first two disciples were --" “最初的两个门徒的名字是——” 来自英汉文学 - 汤姆历险
4 scriptures 720536f64aa43a43453b1181a16638ad     
经文,圣典( scripture的名词复数 ); 经典
参考例句:
  • Here the apostle Peter affirms his belief that the Scriptures are 'inspired'. 使徒彼得在此表达了他相信《圣经》是通过默感写成的。
  • You won't find this moral precept in the scriptures. 你在《圣经》中找不到这种道德规范。
5 scripture WZUx4     
n.经文,圣书,手稿;Scripture:(常用复数)《圣经》,《圣经》中的一段
参考例句:
  • The scripture states that God did not want us to be alone.圣经指出上帝并不是想让我们独身一人生活。
  • They invoked Hindu scripture to justify their position.他们援引印度教的经文为他们的立场辩护。
6 variance MiXwb     
n.矛盾,不同
参考例句:
  • The question of woman suffrage sets them at variance. 妇女参政的问题使他们发生争执。
  • It is unnatural for brothers to be at variance. 兄弟之间不睦是不近人情的。
7 uncommon AlPwO     
adj.罕见的,非凡的,不平常的
参考例句:
  • Such attitudes were not at all uncommon thirty years ago.这些看法在30年前很常见。
  • Phil has uncommon intelligence.菲尔智力超群。
8 authentic ZuZzs     
a.真的,真正的;可靠的,可信的,有根据的
参考例句:
  • This is an authentic news report. We can depend on it. 这是篇可靠的新闻报道, 我们相信它。
  • Autumn is also the authentic season of renewal. 秋天才是真正的除旧布新的季节。
9 martyr o7jzm     
n.烈士,殉难者;vt.杀害,折磨,牺牲
参考例句:
  • The martyr laid down his life for the cause of national independence.这位烈士是为了民族独立的事业而献身的。
  • The newspaper carried the martyr's photo framed in black.报上登载了框有黑边的烈士遗像。
10 briefly 9Styo     
adv.简单地,简短地
参考例句:
  • I want to touch briefly on another aspect of the problem.我想简单地谈一下这个问题的另一方面。
  • He was kidnapped and briefly detained by a terrorist group.他被一个恐怖组织绑架并短暂拘禁。
11 touching sg6zQ9     
adj.动人的,使人感伤的
参考例句:
  • It was a touching sight.这是一幅动人的景象。
  • His letter was touching.他的信很感人。
12 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
13 initiated 9cd5622f36ab9090359c3cf3ca4ddda3     
n. 创始人 adj. 新加入的 vt. 开始,创始,启蒙,介绍加入
参考例句:
  • He has not yet been thoroughly initiated into the mysteries of computers. 他对计算机的奥秘尚未入门。
  • The artist initiated the girl into the art world in France. 这个艺术家介绍这个女孩加入巴黎艺术界。
14 collating 4e338b7658b4143e945c4df2fdae528f     
v.校对( collate的现在分词 );整理;核对;整理(文件或书等)
参考例句:
  • An invalid collating element was specified in a [[. name. ]] block. 块中指定了非法的对照元素。 来自互联网
  • Selected collating sequence not supported by the operating system. 操作系统不支持选择的排序序列。 来自互联网
15 followers 5c342ee9ce1bf07932a1f66af2be7652     
追随者( follower的名词复数 ); 用户; 契据的附面; 从动件
参考例句:
  • the followers of Mahatma Gandhi 圣雄甘地的拥护者
  • The reformer soon gathered a band of followers round him. 改革者很快就获得一群追随者支持他。
16 abrogated c678645948795dc546d67f5ec1acf6f6     
废除(法律等)( abrogate的过去式和过去分词 ); 取消; 去掉; 抛开
参考例句:
  • The president abrogated an old law. 总统废除了一项旧法令。
  • This law has been abrogated. 这项法令今已取消。
17 abrogation JIXyI     
n.取消,废除
参考例句:
  • China regrets the abrogation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. 中国对《反弹道导弹条约》失效感到遗憾。
  • Measures for the abrogation shall be stipulated by the State Council. 废除的办法由国务院制定。
18 concealing 0522a013e14e769c5852093b349fdc9d     
v.隐藏,隐瞒,遮住( conceal的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • Despite his outward display of friendliness, I sensed he was concealing something. 尽管他表现得友善,我还是感觉到他有所隐瞒。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • SHE WAS BREAKING THE COMPACT, AND CONCEALING IT FROM HIM. 她违反了他们之间的约定,还把他蒙在鼓里。 来自英汉文学 - 三万元遗产
19 din nuIxs     
n.喧闹声,嘈杂声
参考例句:
  • The bustle and din gradually faded to silence as night advanced.随着夜越来越深,喧闹声逐渐沉寂。
  • They tried to make themselves heard over the din of the crowd.他们力图让自己的声音盖过人群的喧闹声。
20 saviour pjszHK     
n.拯救者,救星
参考例句:
  • I saw myself as the saviour of my country.我幻想自己为国家的救星。
  • The people clearly saw her as their saviour.人们显然把她看成了救星。
21 extravagant M7zya     
adj.奢侈的;过分的;(言行等)放肆的
参考例句:
  • They tried to please him with fulsome compliments and extravagant gifts.他们想用溢美之词和奢华的礼品来取悦他。
  • He is extravagant in behaviour.他行为放肆。
22 perilled fdc8eff8b88f2ad3133332a66dd309e7     
置…于危险中(peril的过去式与过去分词形式)
参考例句:
  • For a time the census was perilled by a postal strike. 有一段时间,邮政罢工威胁到了户口普查的进行。
23 Christians 28e6e30f94480962cc721493f76ca6c6     
n.基督教徒( Christian的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Christians of all denominations attended the conference. 基督教所有教派的人都出席了这次会议。
  • His novel about Jesus caused a furore among Christians. 他关于耶稣的小说激起了基督教徒的公愤。
24 consistency IY2yT     
n.一贯性,前后一致,稳定性;(液体的)浓度
参考例句:
  • Your behaviour lacks consistency.你的行为缺乏一贯性。
  • We appreciate the consistency and stability in China and in Chinese politics.我们赞赏中国及其政策的连续性和稳定性。
25 blessing UxDztJ     
n.祈神赐福;祷告;祝福,祝愿
参考例句:
  • The blessing was said in Hebrew.祷告用了希伯来语。
  • A double blessing has descended upon the house.双喜临门。
26 everlasting Insx7     
adj.永恒的,持久的,无止境的
参考例句:
  • These tyres are advertised as being everlasting.广告上说轮胎持久耐用。
  • He believes in everlasting life after death.他相信死后有不朽的生命。
27 stigmatize iGZz1     
v.污蔑,玷污
参考例句:
  • Children in single-parent families must not be stigmatized.单亲家庭的孩子们不应该受到歧视。
  • They are often stigmatized by the rest of society as lazy and dirty.他们经常被社会中的其他人污蔑为懒惰、肮脏。
28 formulate L66yt     
v.用公式表示;规划;设计;系统地阐述
参考例句:
  • He took care to formulate his reply very clearly.他字斟句酌,清楚地做了回答。
  • I was impressed by the way he could formulate his ideas.他陈述观点的方式让我印象深刻。
29 doctrines 640cf8a59933d263237ff3d9e5a0f12e     
n.教条( doctrine的名词复数 );教义;学说;(政府政策的)正式声明
参考例句:
  • To modern eyes, such doctrines appear harsh, even cruel. 从现代的角度看,这样的教义显得苛刻,甚至残酷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • His doctrines have seduced many into error. 他的学说把许多人诱入歧途。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
30 doctrine Pkszt     
n.教义;主义;学说
参考例句:
  • He was impelled to proclaim his doctrine.他不得不宣扬他的教义。
  • The council met to consider changes to doctrine.宗教议会开会考虑更改教义。
31 memoirs f752e432fe1fefb99ab15f6983cd506c     
n.回忆录;回忆录传( mem,自oir的名词复数)
参考例句:
  • Her memoirs were ghostwritten. 她的回忆录是由别人代写的。
  • I watched a trailer for the screenplay of his memoirs. 我看过以他的回忆录改编成电影的预告片。 来自《简明英汉词典》
32 exhorts 06a3c3c5a0e82c9493943096b37c16dc     
n.劝勉者,告诫者,提倡者( exhort的名词复数 )v.劝告,劝说( exhort的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • He begs me, exhorts me, commands me to work. 他请求我,劝导我,命令我工作。 来自辞典例句
  • The dialogue continues, with the banks demurely declining as the government exhorts. 政府试图说服银行,而银行则更加保守,双飞的对话仍在继续。 来自互联网
33 assent Hv6zL     
v.批准,认可;n.批准,认可
参考例句:
  • I cannot assent to what you ask.我不能应允你的要求。
  • The new bill passed by Parliament has received Royal Assent.议会所通过的新方案已获国王批准。
34 participation KS9zu     
n.参与,参加,分享
参考例句:
  • Some of the magic tricks called for audience participation.有些魔术要求有观众的参与。
  • The scheme aims to encourage increased participation in sporting activities.这个方案旨在鼓励大众更多地参与体育活动。
35 orphans edf841312acedba480123c467e505b2a     
孤儿( orphan的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The poor orphans were kept on short commons. 贫苦的孤儿们吃不饱饭。
  • Their uncle was declared guardian to the orphans. 这些孤儿的叔父成为他们的监护人。
36 wrought EoZyr     
v.引起;以…原料制作;运转;adj.制造的
参考例句:
  • Events in Paris wrought a change in British opinion towards France and Germany.巴黎发生的事件改变了英国对法国和德国的看法。
  • It's a walking stick with a gold head wrought in the form of a flower.那是一个金质花形包头的拐杖。
37 Saturn tsZy1     
n.农神,土星
参考例句:
  • Astronomers used to ask why only Saturn has rings.天文学家们过去一直感到奇怪,为什么只有土星有光环。
  • These comparisons suggested that Saturn is made of lighter materials.这些比较告诉我们,土星由较轻的物质构成。
38 purely 8Sqxf     
adv.纯粹地,完全地
参考例句:
  • I helped him purely and simply out of friendship.我帮他纯粹是出于友情。
  • This disproves the theory that children are purely imitative.这证明认为儿童只会单纯地模仿的理论是站不住脚的。
39 prevailing E1ozF     
adj.盛行的;占优势的;主要的
参考例句:
  • She wears a fashionable hair style prevailing in the city.她的发型是这个城市流行的款式。
  • This reflects attitudes and values prevailing in society.这反映了社会上盛行的态度和价值观。
40 speculations da17a00acfa088f5ac0adab7a30990eb     
n.投机买卖( speculation的名词复数 );思考;投机活动;推断
参考例句:
  • Your speculations were all quite close to the truth. 你的揣测都很接近于事实。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • This possibility gives rise to interesting speculations. 这种可能性引起了有趣的推测。 来自《用法词典》
41 speculation 9vGwe     
n.思索,沉思;猜测;投机
参考例句:
  • Her mind is occupied with speculation.她的头脑忙于思考。
  • There is widespread speculation that he is going to resign.人们普遍推测他要辞职。
42 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
43 irresistible n4CxX     
adj.非常诱人的,无法拒绝的,无法抗拒的
参考例句:
  • The wheel of history rolls forward with an irresistible force.历史车轮滚滚向前,势不可挡。
  • She saw an irresistible skirt in the store window.她看见商店的橱窗里有一条叫人着迷的裙子。
44 requisite 2W0xu     
adj.需要的,必不可少的;n.必需品
参考例句:
  • He hasn't got the requisite qualifications for the job.他不具备这工作所需的资格。
  • Food and air are requisite for life.食物和空气是生命的必需品。
45 specify evTwm     
vt.指定,详细说明
参考例句:
  • We should specify a time and a place for the meeting.我们应指定会议的时间和地点。
  • Please specify what you will do.请你详述一下你将做什么。
46 exhortation ihXzk     
n.劝告,规劝
参考例句:
  • After repeated exhortation by his comrades,he finally straightened out his thinking.经过同志们再三劝导,他终于想通了。
  • Foreign funds alone are clearly not enough,nor are exhortations to reform.光有外资显然不够,只是劝告人们进行改革也不行。
47 abstaining 69e55c63bad5ae956650c6f0f760180a     
戒(尤指酒),戒除( abstain的现在分词 ); 弃权(不投票)
参考例句:
  • Abstaining from killing, from taking what is not given, & from illicIt'sex. 诸比丘!远离杀生,远离不与取,于爱欲远离邪行。
  • Abstaining from arguments was also linked to an unusual daily cortisol pattern. 压抑争吵也造成每日异常的皮质醇波动。
48 abstain SVUzq     
v.自制,戒绝,弃权,避免
参考例句:
  • His doctor ordered him to abstain from beer and wine.他的医生嘱咐他戒酒。
  • Three Conservative MPs abstained in the vote.三位保守党下院议员投了弃权票。
49 essentially nntxw     
adv.本质上,实质上,基本上
参考例句:
  • Really great men are essentially modest.真正的伟人大都很谦虚。
  • She is an essentially selfish person.她本质上是个自私自利的人。
50 defective qnLzZ     
adj.有毛病的,有问题的,有瑕疵的
参考例句:
  • The firm had received bad publicity over a defective product. 该公司因为一件次品而受到媒体攻击。
  • If the goods prove defective, the customer has the right to compensation. 如果货品证明有缺陷, 顾客有权索赔。
51 testimony zpbwO     
n.证词;见证,证明
参考例句:
  • The testimony given by him is dubious.他所作的证据是可疑的。
  • He was called in to bear testimony to what the police officer said.他被传入为警官所说的话作证。
52 controversy 6Z9y0     
n.争论,辩论,争吵
参考例句:
  • That is a fact beyond controversy.那是一个无可争论的事实。
  • We ran the risk of becoming the butt of every controversy.我们要冒使自己在所有的纷争中都成为众矢之的的风险。
53 clement AVhyV     
adj.仁慈的;温和的
参考例句:
  • A clement judge reduced his sentence.一位仁慈的法官为他减了刑。
  • The planet's history contains many less stable and clement eras than the holocene.地球的历史包含着许多不如全新世稳定与温和的地质时期。
54 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
55 genial egaxm     
adj.亲切的,和蔼的,愉快的,脾气好的
参考例句:
  • Orlando is a genial man.奥兰多是一位和蔼可亲的人。
  • He was a warm-hearted friend and genial host.他是个热心的朋友,也是友善待客的主人。
56 pious KSCzd     
adj.虔诚的;道貌岸然的
参考例句:
  • Alexander is a pious follower of the faith.亚历山大是个虔诚的信徒。
  • Her mother was a pious Christian.她母亲是一个虔诚的基督教徒。
57 orbs f431f734948f112bf8f823608f1d2e37     
abbr.off-reservation boarding school 在校寄宿学校n.球,天体,圆形物( orb的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • So strange did It'seem that those dark wild orbs were ignorant of the day. 那双狂热的深色眼珠竟然没有见过天日,这似乎太奇怪了。 来自辞典例句
  • HELPERKALECGOSORB01.wav-> I will channel my power into the orbs! Be ready! 我会把我的力量引导进宝珠里!准备! 来自互联网
58 orb Lmmzhy     
n.太阳;星球;v.弄圆;成球形
参考例句:
  • The blue heaven,holding its one golden orb,poured down a crystal wash of warm light.蓝蓝的天空托着金色的太阳,洒下一片水晶般明亮温暖的光辉。
  • It is an emanation from the distant orb of immortal light.它是从远处那个发出不灭之光的天体上放射出来的。
59 revolve NBBzX     
vi.(使)旋转;循环出现
参考例句:
  • The planets revolve around the sun.行星绕着太阳运转。
  • The wheels began to revolve slowly.车轮开始慢慢转动。
60 accomplished UzwztZ     
adj.有才艺的;有造诣的;达到了的
参考例句:
  • Thanks to your help,we accomplished the task ahead of schedule.亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
  • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator.通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
61 starry VhWzfP     
adj.星光照耀的, 闪亮的
参考例句:
  • He looked at the starry heavens.他瞧着布满星星的天空。
  • I like the starry winter sky.我喜欢这满天星斗的冬夜。
62 elegies 57b43181c824384d42359857e8b63906     
n.哀歌,挽歌( elegy的名词复数 )
参考例句:
63 salvation nC2zC     
n.(尤指基督)救世,超度,拯救,解困
参考例句:
  • Salvation lay in political reform.解救办法在于政治改革。
  • Christians hope and pray for salvation.基督教徒希望并祈祷灵魂得救。
64 scourged 491857c1b2cb3d503af3674ddd7c53bc     
鞭打( scourge的过去式和过去分词 ); 惩罚,压迫
参考例句:
  • He was scourged by the memory of his misdeeds. 他对以往的胡作非为的回忆使得他精神上受惩罚。
  • Captain White scourged his crew without mercy. 船长怀特无情地鞭挞船员。
65 enigmas 7eb9f025a25280625a0be57ef122bd7d     
n.难于理解的问题、人、物、情况等,奥秘( enigma的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The last words of Night Haunter stand as one of the great enigmas of Imperial history. 暗夜幽魂最后的临死前的话成为了帝国历史上的最大谜团之一。 来自互联网
  • Heraclitus saith well in one of his enigmas, Dry light is ever the best. 赫拉克里塔斯在他的隐语之一中说得很好,“干光永远最佳”。 来自互联网
66 covetousness 9d9bcb4e80eaa86d0435c91cd0d87e1f     
参考例句:
  • As covetousness is the root of all evil, so poverty is the worst of all snares. 正如贪婪是万恶之源一样,贫穷是最坏的陷阱。 来自辞典例句
  • Poverty want many thing, but covetousness all. 贫穷可满足;欲望却难填。 来自互联网
67 voluptuousness de6eaedd2ced2c83d1d1ba98add84fe5     
n.风骚,体态丰满
参考例句:
  • It is a magnificent wine with a soft voluptuousness more reminiscent of old-fashioned burgundy. 这是一种很棒的葡萄酒,温和醇厚,更像传统的勃艮第葡萄酒。 来自柯林斯例句
68 vices 01aad211a45c120dcd263c6f3d60ce79     
缺陷( vice的名词复数 ); 恶习; 不道德行为; 台钳
参考例句:
  • In spite of his vices, he was loved by all. 尽管他有缺点,还是受到大家的爱戴。
  • He vituperated from the pulpit the vices of the court. 他在教堂的讲坛上责骂宫廷的罪恶。
69 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.应用的;v.应用,适用
参考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
70 toils b316b6135d914eee9a4423309c5057e6     
参考例句:
  • It did not declare him to be still in Mrs. Dorset's toils. 这并不表明他仍陷于多赛特夫人的情网。
  • The thief was caught in the toils of law. 这个贼陷入了法网。
71 precept VPox5     
n.戒律;格言
参考例句:
  • It occurs to me that example is always more efficacious than precept.我想到身教重于言教。
  • The son had well profited by the precept and example of the father.老太爷的言传身教早已使他儿子获益无穷。
72 disposition GljzO     
n.性情,性格;意向,倾向;排列,部署
参考例句:
  • He has made a good disposition of his property.他已对财产作了妥善处理。
  • He has a cheerful disposition.他性情开朗。
73 glorifying 1f84c1020d395ee8281fcd2ddf031934     
赞美( glorify的现在分词 ); 颂扬; 美化; 使光荣
参考例句:
  • I had no intention of either glorifying or belittling Christianity, merely the desire to understand it. 我并没有赞扬基督教或蔑视它的立意,我所想的只是了解它。
  • You are glorifying a rather mediocre building. 你正在美化一栋普普通通的建筑。
74 chastising 41885a7e2f378873d40b720c26b1fe85     
v.严惩(某人)(尤指责打)( chastise的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • Jo was chastising his teddy bear in the living room. 乔在起居室里严厉地惩罚他的玩具小狗熊。 来自辞典例句
75 faculty HhkzK     
n.才能;学院,系;(学院或系的)全体教学人员
参考例句:
  • He has a great faculty for learning foreign languages.他有学习外语的天赋。
  • He has the faculty of saying the right thing at the right time.他有在恰当的时候说恰当的话的才智。
76 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
77 discoursing d54e470af284cbfb53599a303c416007     
演说(discourse的现在分词形式)
参考例句:
  • He was discoursing to us on Keats. 他正给我们讲济慈。
  • He found the time better employed in searching than in discussing, in discovering than in discoursing. 他认为与其把时间花费在你争我辩和高谈阔论上,不如用在研究和发现上。
78 discourse 2lGz0     
n.论文,演说;谈话;话语;vi.讲述,著述
参考例句:
  • We'll discourse on the subject tonight.我们今晚要谈论这个问题。
  • He fell into discourse with the customers who were drinking at the counter.他和站在柜台旁的酒客谈了起来。
79 maturity 47nzh     
n.成熟;完成;(支票、债券等)到期
参考例句:
  • These plants ought to reach maturity after five years.这些植物五年后就该长成了。
  • This is the period at which the body attains maturity.这是身体发育成熟的时期。
80 embryo upAxt     
n.胚胎,萌芽的事物
参考例句:
  • They are engaging in an embryo research.他们正在进行一项胚胎研究。
  • The project was barely in embryo.该计划只是个雏形。
81 psalms 47aac1d82cedae7c6a543a2c9a72b9db     
n.赞美诗( psalm的名词复数 );圣诗;圣歌;(中的)
参考例句:
  • the Book of Psalms 《〈圣经〉诗篇》
  • A verse from Psalms knifed into Pug's mind: "put not your trust in princes." 《诗篇》里有一句话闪过帕格的脑海:“不要相信王侯。” 来自辞典例句
82 reign pBbzx     
n.统治时期,统治,支配,盛行;v.占优势
参考例句:
  • The reign of Queen Elizabeth lapped over into the seventeenth century.伊丽莎白王朝延至17世纪。
  • The reign of Zhu Yuanzhang lasted about 31 years.朱元璋统治了大约三十一年。
83 iota Eauzq     
n.些微,一点儿
参考例句:
  • There is not an iota of truth in his story.他的故事没有一点是真的。
  • He's never shown an iota of interest in any kind of work.他从来没有对任何工作表现出一点儿兴趣。
84 wielded d9bac000554dcceda2561eb3687290fc     
手持着使用(武器、工具等)( wield的过去式和过去分词 ); 具有; 运用(权力); 施加(影响)
参考例句:
  • The bad eggs wielded power, while the good people were oppressed. 坏人当道,好人受气
  • He was nominally the leader, but others actually wielded the power. 名义上他是领导者,但实际上是别人掌握实权。
85 prolific fiUyF     
adj.丰富的,大量的;多产的,富有创造力的
参考例句:
  • She is a prolific writer of novels and short stories.她是一位多产的作家,写了很多小说和短篇故事。
  • The last few pages of the document are prolific of mistakes.这个文件的最后几页错误很多。
86 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
参考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.当地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著称。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班迟到出了名。
87 abolition PIpyA     
n.废除,取消
参考例句:
  • They declared for the abolition of slavery.他们声明赞成废除奴隶制度。
  • The abolition of the monarchy was part of their price.废除君主制是他们的其中一部分条件。
88 upbraids 48e31b2c8438b2518c5450b9dc8a8fc2     
v.责备,申斥,谴责( upbraid的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
89 formerly ni3x9     
adv.从前,以前
参考例句:
  • We now enjoy these comforts of which formerly we had only heard.我们现在享受到了过去只是听说过的那些舒适条件。
  • This boat was formerly used on the rivers of China.这船从前航行在中国内河里。
90 fidelity vk3xB     
n.忠诚,忠实;精确
参考例句:
  • There is nothing like a dog's fidelity.没有什么能比得上狗的忠诚。
  • His fidelity and industry brought him speedy promotion.他的尽职及勤奋使他很快地得到晋升。
91 sect 1ZkxK     
n.派别,宗教,学派,派系
参考例句:
  • When he was sixteen he joined a religious sect.他16岁的时候加入了一个宗教教派。
  • Each religious sect in the town had its own church.该城每一个宗教教派都有自己的教堂。
92 apprehensive WNkyw     
adj.担心的,恐惧的,善于领会的
参考例句:
  • She was deeply apprehensive about her future.她对未来感到非常担心。
  • He was rather apprehensive of failure.他相当害怕失败。
93 festive mkBx5     
adj.欢宴的,节日的
参考例句:
  • It was Christmas and everyone was in festive mood.当时是圣诞节,每个人都沉浸在节日的欢乐中。
  • We all wore festive costumes to the ball.我们都穿着节日的盛装前去参加舞会。
94 annually VzYzNO     
adv.一年一次,每年
参考例句:
  • Many migratory birds visit this lake annually.许多候鸟每年到这个湖上作短期逗留。
  • They celebrate their wedding anniversary annually.他们每年庆祝一番结婚纪念日。
95 forth Hzdz2     
adv.向前;向外,往外
参考例句:
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
96 legitimate L9ZzJ     
adj.合法的,合理的,合乎逻辑的;v.使合法
参考例句:
  • Sickness is a legitimate reason for asking for leave.生病是请假的一个正当的理由。
  • That's a perfectly legitimate fear.怀有这种恐惧完全在情理之中。


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