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CHAPTER XIII FORESTRY
Did anyone ever hear of Argentine timber? Few people indeed; though a good many more know that both of the River Plate Republics are large importers of wood from the North of Europe. That they need not be so, because they have all they, and a good many other countries besides, can possibly need already growing in their own territories (and as much more as may be wanted, only for the trouble of planting under highly favourable natural conditions), will come as a surprise even to some Argentines and Uruguayans; so accustomed are they to import all their building timber and furniture. Yet the above are facts.[46]

The only well-known forestal products of the River Plate are the logs of and extract from the Quebracho (Aspidosperma Quebracho, Schlet). The wood of this tree is very hard—hence its name quebra-hacha, break-axe—and is valuable for cabinet-making, fine carving, and engraving, etc.; but it rots quickly when exposed to the influences of weather. Notwithstanding this, on account of its hardness, it is in large demand for railway sleepers. The extract is very largely used for tanning.

The following lists and descriptions given by Se?or Fernando Mauduit in his erudite Monograph on “Arboriculture in Argentina,” attached to the Argentine National Census, 1908, cannot, certainly, be improved on by the present author. These lists, although confined to the enumeration of the chief classes of trees only, are at the same time[278] fully indicative of the general nature of forest vegetation not only in Argentina but also in Uruguay.

A glance at the map of both Republics will show that, from geographic and climatic distribution, they may practically be reckoned as one country in this regard. Indeed, as will be seen, Se?or Mauduit specifically includes Uruguay in what he terms the Riparian Region. He says that the configuration of the different zones and the fertility of their soil allow of the cultivation of every product of the two Americas, Asia, Europe and Australia, with the exception of those of the torrid zone.

The following enumeration of “regions” and of the chief kinds of trees found and capable of being grown in the River Plate countries, with the respective descriptions, are taken from the Monograph above referred to:—

1. Subtropical, comprising the plains of Santiago del Estero and the Chaco, the lowlands of Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy, North Corrientes and Misiones.

2. Northern Andean, stretching along the Andes, from San Juan to the Bolivian frontier, comprising Catamarca, Salta, Jujuy, Los Andes and part of Tucumán.

3. Southern Andean, from San Juan to Neuquen.

4. Northern Pampean, from Santiago del Estero to Buenos Aires, wherein the eucalyptus trees do not suffer from frost, and comprising Córdoba, San Luis, part of Santa Fé and Buenos Aires.

5. Southern Pampean, comprising Córdoba and San Luis, where the eucalyptus freezes, Southern Buenos Aires and the Pampas.

6. Austral, composed of the territories of Rio Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz.

7. Riparian, comprising the islands of the Paraná, Entre Rios and the shores of the rivers Plate, Paraná and Uruguay.

8. Maritime, stretching along the Atlantic coast in a belt three leagues wide, more or less, according to the configuration of the soil.

9. Straits, consisting of the shores of the Straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego.

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The confines of all these regions cross and merge into one another, at times, on account of the altitude in their different zones. The vegetation typical of one zone is often scattered through one or more neighbouring ones, so that they cannot be exactly defined. The greater or lesser altitude of a place often goes towards modifying the uniform character of the vegetation.

In the first region the forests contain the best timber in the Republic, cedar or hardwood, so-called (cedrela) quebracho white and red, lapacho, algarrobo (carob), acacia, ibirá, molle, ?andubay, different woods, Misiones pine, Brazilian araucaria, tarco, urunday, aguaribay, cebil, timbó, palm trees, etc., and the fruit trees of the region, orange, lemon, pomegranate, guava, chirimoyas (custard apple) and pantas.

Fruit tree planting, though seldom, is more carefully done than formerly, and its products inundate the markets of Buenos Aires, Rosario and Santa Fé.

The Paraguayan tea tree, or rather bush (mate), is grown in many places and cultivated rationally. Mr. Thays’ experiments give room for hoping that this precious bush may become a certain source of future wealth, whereas the old system of cultivation was bound to entail, early or late, the total extinction of the product.

All kinds of eucalyptus trees grow well, and the extensive planting of these trees in the Chaco, Misiones, in Tucumán, Corrientes and Santiago del Estero is a consummation devoutly to be wished for.

The same trees are found in the second region, but fewer in number and smaller in size, orange, lemon, fig, plum, peach and pomegranate trees, also the vine can be successfully grown, and in the valleys guayavos, chirimoyas, pantas, avocados and persimmons. Plantations of mate and eucalyptus could also be tried.

The third region is warmer and partly covered with vineyards. Here the vine is in its native element.

On the slopes of the Andes the soil is admirably suited for the planting of forest trees, such as pines, firs, beeches, and all others peculiar to mild, dry climates; as well as for that of fruit trees, such as the walnut, chestnut, apple, cherry, pear and peach trees … the vine where late frosts are not very frequent.

In the Northern Pampas, or the fourth region, all kinds of fruit trees can be grown, soil permitting, orange, fig, persimmon, vines, mulberry, almond, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, walnut,[280] chestnut, pear and quince trees. This is the forest tree region of the plains: hardwood, native willows, the paradise tree, ombú, laurel, sequoia, cypress, sycamore, maple and many others. The caldén tree covers immense stretches, likewise the carob tree.

The fifth or Southern Pampean region differs from the preceding one in the cooler and even colder climate in its southern part. Apart from the trees which suffer from frosts this is the most favourable zone for tree cultivation in general. All forest trees which resist 10° below zero grow well here, the oak, beech, ash, maple, pine, fir, spruce, poplar, elm, sycamore and such fruit trees as the peach, cherry, plum, apricot, quince, pear and apple tree.

These two regions are those containing the largest plantations of trees of all kinds, millions of eucalyptus trees, farms, parks and gardens, richly stocked, representing millions of dollars, and ever-increasing and multiplying orchards and groves which bring in thousands, but whose output could be increased tenfold without succeeding in ousting the preserved fruit imported from Europe and North America.

The sixth or Austral region, as its name indicates, is exposed to the south winds. It is the cold region which excludes the eucalyptus, the Californian pine, and peach tree, the vine, etc., but where in sheltered spots the cherry, plum, pear and apple tree can be grown, the last especially. This, once known, would make the fortune of this region. Cider manufacture would furnish a wholesome, pleasant beverage, much cheaper than wine.

Moreover, the preparation of apple preserves of every kind will one day be like that of North America. The man who plants apple trees, beginning from 38° S. latitude to the south, secures for himself and his children returns proportionate to the outlay made.

The seventh region is very fertile and suited for the planting of willows, poplars, alders, cryptomerias, cypresses, sycamores, magnolias, palm trees, orange trees, tangerines, persimmons, etc. Peach and quince trees are grown here on a large scale to supply the markets of the capital. It has been the cradle of fruit-growing, and as it has been endowed with a mild climate and a generally humid soil everything grows luxuriantly and produces abundantly, though the general quality of its products is not equal to that of the fruit grown in the fifth region.

The eighth region is arid in certain places, and always exposed[281] to the winds and sea fogs which are so harmful to the growth of the trees. The winds from the south blow throughout the year on nearly all our sea coast. The only trees that can be grown successfully are the eucalyptus (E. globulus), the Canadian and other poplars, the tamarisk, cypress, lambertiana, maritime pine, Pinus insignis, and all must be planted very thickly in order to resist the impetuous attack of the winds and the fogs.

In the ninth and last region we have included the shores of the Straits of Magellan as far as Gallegos, and inland as far as the hills; and on the other shore Fireland (Tierra del Fuego). Fruit tree planting cannot be thought of there for the present, the only thing to be done is to propagate largely the native growths, and where the climate permits it to plant spruces, pines, firs, birches, beeches, hazels, currant bushes, yews, all of which are sturdy growths of the colder countries.
Chief Indigenous Species of Forest Trees

Quebracho, Aspidosperma Quebracho, Schlet.—A tree 20 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter, with very hard wood, greatly valued for certain purposes. Does not resist exposure to the elements, however, and rots easily. Greatly prized for engraving and cabinet-making and for fine wood carving, etc. The bark and leaves are rich in tannin. It appears that there are some varieties which do not possess so large a percentage of tannin.

It grows easily from seed which is sown in beds when ripe, where it must be nursed before sowing in beds. Its growth is slow at first, but once the roots have taken well in a soil rich in humus it attains a great size. It multiplies naturally from its seeds and should form a third as a stock tree in the afforestation of the subtropical regions.

Boldu, Boldu chilanum, Nees.—Grows to a height of 15 metres in the Andean regions, where its timber is used for various purposes. It multiplies from seed and should be sown in beds in holes. Can be utilized as an auxiliary in afforestation of its native region.

Lignum Vit? (Palo Santo), Bulnesia Sarmienti, Grisb.—20 metres in height by 0·75 metre in diameter. Grows plentifully in the Chaco and Misiones, Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy, gives a timber, heavier than water, which is used for cabinet-making[282] and various ornaments. Multiplies easily from seed as an auxiliary in subtropical woods.

Palo Blanco, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Grisb.—About 15 metres in height, gives very fine timber, yellow in colour, used for different joinery purposes. Multiplies from seed like the preceding tree and used also as an auxiliary in the same regions.

Horco Molle, Bumelia obtusiolia, Roem and Schlet.—12 metres in height by O·50 metre in diameter. Furnishes excellent timber for cabinet-making and coach-building. Multiplies from seed sown in rows as soon as ripe. In mixed subtropical woods, it serves as an auxiliary for afforestation and reafforestation.

Guaicum, Cesalpina melanocarpa, Grisb.—From 10 to 15 metres in height. Gives nice veined timber, used for cabinet-making and ornaments. Its bark, as well as the seed pods, contains a large percentage of tannin. It multiplies from seed and is a secondary tree throughout the subtropical zone.

Red Cedar, Cedrela brasiliensis, A. Juss.—30 metres in height by O·75 metre in diameter, and sometimes more. Furnishes very fine light timber of a nice colour and easy to work. Much used for joinery work. One of the best stock trees in the subtropical zone, where it should be used for reafforestation in the existing woods, and afforestation throughout the subtropical region. To be sown in rows as far as possible and with seeds in layers.

Tala, Celtis tola, Gill, Celtis sellowiana, Miq.—From 10 to 15 metres in height. This tree is of slight importance for afforestation, although its timber is good for posts, cart-trees, handles for tools, etc. Grows in the first, second and third regions. Multiplies from seeds in layers as an auxiliary in mixed woods and woodlands.

Palo de Lanza Amarilla (Yellow Lancewood), Chuncoa trifolia, Grisb.—Same height and regions as the preceding tree. To be planted in the same woods. The timber is useful for joinery work.

Laurel, Emmotum apogon, Grisb.—One of the finest trees of the subtropical region; over 25 metres in height by O·50 metre in diameter. The timber is very fine and good, and is useful for carpentry work. One of the best kinds for reafforestation and as stock for afforestation. Sown in rows in little holes with seeds in layers as far as possible.

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White or Yellow Laurel, Oreodaphne suaveolens, Meissn.—30 metres in height by 0·50 metre in diameter. Furnishes light timber, aromatic, easily worked and suitable for joinery. Is a good auxiliary for reafforestation and for afforestation in the first region. Sown like the preceding one.

Black Laurel or Mountain Laurel, Nectandra porphyria, Grisb.—Same height as the preceding trees and 1 metre in diameter. Gives fine yellow timber with a black grain like walnut, but requiring a long time to become seasoned, and splitting when worked before being quite seasoned. Employed in hydraulic works, as it keeps well in water. A good auxiliary kind for afforestation in the first, second and fourth regions, the seed to be sown in little holes, in rows and in layers.

Timbó Pacará, Enterolobium timbouva, Mart.—A very leafy tree of the subtropical region, from 15 to 25 metres in height by 1 to 1·50 metres in diameter. Furnishes timber used for carpentry and different household purposes, for boats, casks, etc. The bark contains tannin, and the sawdust of the dry wood causes sneezing. This is a good auxiliary kind for woods in the first, second and fourth regions. Multiplies from seeds sown in holes in rows. It can also be grown from twigs to be planted at the end of May, a metre apart, in rows of from 1 to 3 metres apart.

Beech, Fagus antarctica, Mirb., F. betuloides, Mirb., F. oblicua, Mirb.—A tree of 20 to 30 metres in height, peculiar to the austral regions, where it forms forests and woods. Its timber does not resist damp greatly, but is much prized for box-making and internal woodwork. Multiplies easily from its seeds, which grow naturally in its shade. When they are gathered to be used for afforestation they must be sown at once in layers, or in little holes, as their germinative power is soon lost. Is one of the best kinds of stock trees for afforestation in the 6th and 9th regions and for reafforestation where it already grows.

Larch, Fitz-roya patagonica, Hook.—This conifer of the woods of the south attains a height of 30 metres, and the timber given by it is equal to pinewood and used for similar purposes. Is very suitable for afforestation intermingled with wild pines in the austral region, and with spruce in that of the straits. It might also be added to the araucaria in the extreme south of the Southern Andean region.

Quillay (Soap Bark), Garugandra amorphoides, Grisb.—This[284] is a very thorny tree and can be used as a protective belt round large orchards or plantations for industrial purposes, in places where animals trespass, and there is no other way to prevent it. It attains a height of 15 metres by 0·75 metre in diameter and multiplies naturally from seed. Its timber seems to be of good quality, and its bark is used as soap in cleaning woollen and cotton fabrics.

It can be planted as indicated above in regions first, second and third; and, should it become a nuisance, it may be rooted out when the plantations are strong against trespass.

Cha?ar, Gourlien decorticans, Gill.—Whole woods of these trees are to be found in regions 1, 2, 3 and 4. Its fruit is edible and animals crave for it. Its timber is used for various household purposes.

Walnut (Cayuri), Juglans australis, Grisb.—15 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter, with timber equal to European walnut. This valuable tree, which ought to be cultivated on a large scale, is gradually vanishing from our woods without any attempt at reafforestation. We shall become aware of its industrial value only when it has completely disappeared. It is suitable as a stock tree in afforestation and as an auxiliary in reafforestation.

Red Quebracho, Loxopterigium Lorentzii, Grisb.—A valuable tree, 15 metres in height by 2 metres in diameter, its timber is greatly prized for building purposes, and possesses so much tannin that it is largely exploited in the Chaco forests. It is slow of growth, and, therefore, measures for its multiplication are indispensable, so as to avoid exhausting this source of wealth. It is one of the best stock kinds for reafforestation, a third being planted with species of a more rapid growth. It multiplies naturally if care is taken to prevent forest fires and to leave always a few full-grown trees standing. Red Quebracho timber is hard, heavy, and not easily worked. It is used especially for railway sleepers, posts, columns, frames, etc. It is nicely veined, and heavy furniture can be made from it. Buried or in water it keeps for many years.

Tipa (Hardwood), Mach?rium Tipa, Benth.—A tree from 20 to 25 metres in height, very leafy. Its timber is used for different household purposes. A splendid avenue tree, but very third-rate as a forest tree. The seeds are sown in rows, once ripe: 1st and 4th regions.

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Mora (Mulberry), Maclura Mora, Grisb.—From 15 to 20 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter. Furnishes yellowish, fine-grained timber, which is used for the manufacture of elegant furniture. Well seasoned, the wood is the colour of mahogany. An excellent auxiliary tree in the subtropical, Pampean and Northern Andean regions. In mixed woods it may be stock or prevailing tree, according to the kinds grown with it. It may also be used for woodland cutting. It is sown in rows, or grown in nurseries for two years, when the young plants are transplanted.

Palo de San Antonio, Myrsine floribunda.—15 metres in height by 0·75 metre in diameter, with a straight trunk and springy wood, which is used principally for making staves. To be sown in rows as an auxiliary, in mixed woods, in the 1st, 2nd and 4th regions.

Cebil, Piptadenia Cebil, Grisb., P. communis, Benth.—A tree of 20 to 25 metres in height by over 1 metre in diameter. Grows in the subtropical Andean and Northern Pampean regions. Excellent timber, but can only be utilized when quite seasoned, and is used principally for joinery. To be sown as stock trees in furrows or small holes.

Algarrobo (Carob Tree), Prosopis alba, Grisb.—From 15 to 20 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter, with timber much used in carpentry, and bark possessing a large percentage of tannin. A good kind for afforestation in regions 1, 2 and 4; to be sown as stock trees in furrows or small holes.

?andubay, Prosopis algarrobilo, Grisb.—About 10 metres in height, with hard timber, generally used for large stakes and posts. Grows well throughout the northern and even in the third region. To be sown as an auxiliary in mixed woods.

Irirarú, Virarú, Palo de Lanza (Lancewood), Ruprechtia excelsa, Grisb.—10 to 15 metres in height by 0·75 metre in diameter; giving excellent timber for various household purposes. To be sown as an auxiliary in woods of the northern regions, predominating among timber for cutting.

Lapacho, Tabebuia Avellaned?, Lorentz, Tabebuia flavescens, Benth.—This beautiful tree is covered with blossoms in spring time, the former with pinky mauve and the latter with yellow blossoms. In the northern forests it grows to a height of 25 metres, its wood is very fine-grained and very much prized for all sorts of fine carpentry. Two excellent kinds for stock in tall[286] mixed woods, 1st and 2nd regions. To be sown in rows, in furrows or small holes.

Coco (Cocoanut Tree), Zanthoxylum Coco, Gill.—From 10 to 12 metres in height by 0·75 metre in diameter. The wood is very pretty and fine, valued for elegant furniture. To be sown in rows, furrows or small holes as an auxiliary in mixed woods and plantations in the 1st and 2nd regions.

Urunday, Astronium juglandifolium, Grisb.—A splendid tree from 25 to 30 metres in height by 1·50 metres in diameter, common in the Chaco. Its timber is very hard and richly coloured, it is used for furniture, ship-building, etc. One of the best kinds for stock and reafforestation in the first region. Multiplies naturally from seed if care be taken to leave a few trees standing at suitable distances for producing seeds, which scatter easily. In the warm valleys of the 4th region, as well as in the 2nd, to be sown in furrows with other auxiliary species for afforestation.

Alder Tree, Alnus ferruginea, Kth.—From the Northern Andean region, where it grows to a height of 15 metres by 0·75 metre in diameter. Gives white, very easily worked, damp-resisting timber, used for joinery work. A good auxiliary kind for afforestation in 1st, 2nd, 4th and 7th regions. To be sown in rows, in furrows or in plots with other species, one being the stock tree.

Native or Red Willow, Salix Humboldtiana, Witti.—15 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter. Grows well in all regions where the eucalyptus does not freeze, gives timber for carpentry and multiplies from seed. A good auxiliary in mixed woods and timber for cutting, and for reafforestation on damp soil, where it is planted from twigs towards the end of the winter. For afforestation it is sown in plots when the seeds are ripe, in regions 4 and 7 and the more temperate part of region 3.

Southern Pine, Araucaria imbricata, R. and P.—A tree 50 metres in height of our southern forests. Its timber is equal to the best pine, and it is one of the best stock kinds in the 6th region. To be sown in rows or in little holes when the seeds drop naturally in the 5th and 6th regions.

Misiones Pine, Araucaria brasiliensis, A. Rich.—This conifer grows to a height of 50 metres by 1 metre in diameter in certain valleys of the northern regions 1, 2, and part of 3, 4, 7 and 8, as far as Mar del Plata. Its timber is equal to that of the[287] pine, it is used for joinery and building. Sown like the preceding tree.

Cypress, Libocedras chilensis, Endl.—From the Andes, where it grows to a height of 25 to 30 metres by 0·70 metre in diameter. Its wood is fine and excels for furniture and veneering. A good auxiliary kind for the dense woods of the south.
Chief Species of Exotic Forest Trees Grown in the Country

Fir, Abies Nordmanniana, Spach.—From Asia Minor, where it grows to a height of 40 metres by 1·50 metres in diameter at least, 5th and 6th regions, in tall woods consisting of firs alone.

Acacia Olive, Acacia melanoxylon, R. Br.—From Australia, where it attains a height of 15 to 20 metres by 1 metre in diameter; very branchy, and giving very hard wood known as iron wood. A good stock kind in acacia, mimosa and laurel groves in regions 4, 5, 7 and 8, as far as Mar del Plata. To be sown in rows or in furrows.

French Mimosa, Acacia dealbata, Link.—Likewise from Australia; it attains a height of 20 metres by 0·50 metre in diameter, but breaks easily. A good predominating species and for reafforestation of timber for cutting, in regions 4, 5, 7 and 8, as far as 38° S. latitude.

Maple Tree, Acer pseudo platanus, L.—A European tree 20 to 30 metres in height by 0·75 metre in diameter, growing as rapidly as the sycamore maple. An excellent auxiliary kind for tall woods of trees with deciduous leaves, in regions 4, 5, 6 and 7. To be sown in rows, in furrows or one-year-old saplings 2 metres apart.

Heavenly Tree, Ailanthus glandulosa, Desf.—From China, from 25 to 30 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter; very sturdy, and multiplying on all sides from the numberless saplings which grow from its roots; furnishes fine, hard, well-veined timber. A good kind for mixed woods and for stock timber in regions 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. To be sown in rows or planted from saplings.

Alder Tree, Alnus glutinosa, Gaertn.—From Europe and Western Asia. From 20 to 30 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter. Grows well in the riparian region, and its wood is useful for carpentry. Sown in rows, in furrows or in plots.

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Spanish Chestnut, Castanea vesca, Gaertn.—From Europe, Asia and Northern Africa. It grows here as a fruit tree, but may be grown also as a forest stock tree in tall and mixed woods, and as an auxiliary in timber for cutting in regions 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Its wood is principally used for staves, casks, etc. To be sown in rows as soon as it falls, as the germinative power is of short duration. It may also be sown in nursery beds, for transplanting when two or three years old.

Casuarina (She Oak).—Various species are grown here, chief are C. quadrivalvis, Labill., C. equisetifolia, Forst., and C. glauca, Sieb. Herb. We ignore the height to which they may grow, but many specimens we have are from 20 to 30 metres high. The mode of reproduction and cultivation is the same as for eucalyptus. The wood is excellent. Suitable for high woods in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th regions.

Cedars.—Although not yet grown on a very large scale, the specimens we have of C. Atlantica, C. libani and C. deodara, natives of Mounts Atlas, Lebanon and the Himalayas, are hardy, cold-resisting, and everything points to our being able to grow them well in high woods intermingled with cypresses, in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th regions. Its timber is first class, and useful for many purposes.

Sweet Cherry, Cerasus avium, Moench.—From Europe, where it grows to a height of 20 to 25 metres, gives splendid wood, greatly prized for furniture. The few specimens we have scattered through the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th regions. To be sown in nursery beds after gathering the seeds, or in layers in furrows or small holes. The nurslings are transplanted when a year or two old.

Cryptomeria Japonica, Don.—From Japan. Grows very well here, easily attaining the same height as in its native land, which varies from 30 to 40 metres. A good kind for tall woods on rich soil. Multiplication and cultivation like that of the eucalyptus in the 4th, 5th and 7th regions. Trials in the 8th.

Dammara Australis, Lumb.—From New Zealand. The few specimens we have in the environs of Buenos Aires show a species quite as hardy as in its native land, where it attains a height of 50 metres by 2 metres in diameter. Grown like the eucalyptus in compact groves and in the same region.

Eucalyptus.—Native of Australia. We reckon our specimens of this gigantic tree by the thousand, of several different kinds.[289] The first known specimens of E. globulus were planted more than half a century ago, and now it would take a long time to enumerate all our progressive citizens who have devoted large tracts of land to forming dense groves of these trees, which, besides giving them good returns in the sums represented by the present eucalyptus groves, have also contributed to increase the value of the land, directly or indirectly. Directly, thanks to the amount of vegetable mould which these trees originate, and indirectly for the shelter afforded by them for growing certain kinds of plants and rearing delicate breeds of cattle which would not have thriven in the open country. It would be difficult to estimate the share of the eucalyptus in the increased value of the lands, flocks and herds. In order to form an idea on the subject one must imagine what estancias were sixty years ago, with the sheltering ombú and the peach grove, enclosed by paradise trees and willows. How long it took to grow a tiny grove of willows, paradise tree and black wattle, which barely furnished sufficient wood to heat the water for brewing mate or Paraguayan tea. Different kinds of Eucalyptus are grown under apocryphal specific designations, and therefore we abstain from giving them lest we lead planters into temptation.

The best among them are the following:—

E. Amygdalina, Labill.—From Australia and Tasmania, 140 metres in height by 4 or 5 metres in diameter.

E. Botrioydes, Smith.—From Southern Queensland, where it attains a height of 60 metres by 2 metres in diameter.

E. diversicolor, F. v. M.—From Southern Australia, 140 metres in height, over 2 metres in diameter.

E. cornuta, Labill.—From the same place as the preceding one, 60 metres in height by 2 metres in diameter.

E. hemiphloia, F. v. M.—From New South Wales, where it attains a height of 60 metres by 2 metres in diameter. The best wood of all.

E. leucoxylon, F. v. M.—From New South Wales and Victoria. This is the famous “iron bark”; it is only 30 metres in height by 2 metres in diameter.

E. melliodora, Cunningh.—New South Wales and Victoria. Gives very fine timber and grows to a height of 60 metres by 1·50 metres in diameter. Its blossoms are much visited by bees.

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E. occidentalis, Smith.—From Western Australia. Like E. globulus, can be grown near the sea coast. Generally it does not exceed 40 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter.

E. pauciflora, Sieb.—Southern Australia and Tasmania. From 50 to 60 metres in height by 2 metres in diameter, wood of excellent quality. One of the best cold-resisting species.

E. Pilularis, Smith.—Southern Queensland and New South Wales, 100 metres in height and 4 metres in diameter; wood of excellent quality.

E. viminalis, Labill.—Southern Australia, where it grows to a height of 100 metres by 3 or 4 metres in diameter.

All these species have been imported and planted in different places. Some, on the one hand, and others, on the other, probably have been lost, the remainder are mixed to such a degree that at present no information can be given about them without falling into error.

All the species mentioned and some others were planted in “3 de Febrero” Park, about the year 1875-76, in the clump which shaded the guanacos’ corral. At first they bore distinguishing numbers, but now nothing remains to designate them. Another nursery had been started on the other side of the railway to the Tigre, beside the avenue of palms, of which also we believe not a vestige remains. There also was a nursery of ombús, one of hardwood trees and a collection of American grape vines.

Ash Tree, Fraxinus excelsior, L.—Europe. From 25 to 30 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter. Gives very elastic, white or yellow timber, greatly prized in carriage-building. Grows well in the 5th, 6th and 7th regions. The seeds are laid down as they ripen, sometimes they take two years to germinate, but when they fall naturally to the ground and are covered over by leaves in autumn they sprout well. On this account and that of its intrinsic value this tree is one of the best kinds for stocking tall and mixed woods. The best plan for afforestation is to sow the seeds in nursery beds and plant out the following year.

Black Acacia, Gleditschia triacanthos.—A thorny North American tree; here growing to a height of 25 metres by 0·70 metre in diameter. Its wood is excellent for cabinet-making. Sown in rows as an auxiliary—on account of its thorns. It gives a quantity of edible pods like that of the carob tree. It grows well in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th regions.

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Walnut, Juglans regia, L.—From Europe and Asia. Does not exceed 25 metres in height, but is a metre and more in diameter. Grows as a forest tree, but is very suitable for stocking mixed woods in the 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 6th regions. To be sown in rows, in holes or in nursery beds and planted out when a year old. As the seeds keep their germinative power for a month only, they must be sown immediately or placed in layers. The wood, which is greatly prized, is one of the best known and valued.

Paradise Tree, Melia azedarach, L.—Southern Asia. 15 metres in height by 0·60 metre in diameter. A good auxiliary species for mixed woods and timber for cutting in the 3rd, 4th, 6th and 7th regions, where the eucalyptus does not freeze.

Negundo Fraxinifolium, Nutt.—From North America, growing well in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th regions, where it attains a height of 10 to 15 metres by 0·50 metre in diameter. It is a good kind for mixed woods and timber for cutting. The seeds are sown immediately on ripening. It is also grown from grafting twigs.

Fir, Picea excelsa, Linck.—From Europe, where it attains a height of 40 metres. The few specimens we know do not allow of our expressing any opinion, based on practical experience, about the possible merit of this splendid tree in our woods in the 3rd, 5th, 6th and 9th regions, though its origin and growth give reason for hope. In Europe, in all the plantations we know of in Germany, England and France, the fir is one of the best cold, storm and drought-resisting trees.

It is sown in rows, in furrows 2·50 to 3 metres apart, according to the soil. It may be planted alone or alternately with birch trees.

Pines.—The kind best known and cultivated here are the Pinus austriaca, P. insignis and P. Pinaster. Without questioning the specific designation applied to certain kinds of pine trees, we may say that P. insignis grows luxuriantly in the 4th, 5th and 7th regions, forming dense woods; the P. Canariensis, not quite so hardy, does not flourish so far south, the other kinds may be grown in those as well as in the Riparian austral and maritime regions, where they may prove very useful, as well as the varieties P. maritima, P. laricio, etc.

Plane Tree, Platanus orientalis, L.—From Europe and Asia Minor. It grows to 40 metres in height by 1 or 2 metres in diameter.[292] It is the favourite for avenues; grows taller in the woods, but its foliage is not so luxuriant. Propagated from grafting twigs to be planted 50 centimetres apart in rows 2·50 metres apart. To be thinned out when two years old, leaving the latter distance between them and filling up the gaps with those taken out. Its wood is useful for many purposes, though not first class.

Poplar, Populus.—We have many large plantations of the Lombardy poplar, P. Nigra, L., Canadian poplar, O. Canadensis, Michx., and the Swiss, Virginian and some of the Carolina poplar, which is the male plant of the same species. Some plantations of the silver poplar, P. alba, P. euphratica and P. simoni, have also been planted.

All may be utilized as auxiliaries in planting mixed woods and timber for cutting. They are very hardy, and the wood is used for packing-cases, boxes, etc. They are planted from grafting twigs 50 centimetres apart, in rows of 2 metres, to be thinned out when necessary.

White Acacia, Robinia pseudo-acacia.—North American. Grows to a height of 25 metres by 0·60 metre in diameter; when dry, the wood is excellent, and is used for coach-building, cabinet-making, etc. It grows well, especially in mixed woods, as the saplings are utilized. In timber plantations it must be planted singly as it overruns the ground in a short time. To be sown in rows 25 or 30 kilogs. to the hectare, without any mixture. From the strongest and straightest specimens stock trees are chosen, the others are cut down to the ground every two, twelve or eighteen years.

Willow, Salix.—The willow is very useful for planting woods in damp or low-lying places in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th regions. It is grown from grafting twigs, a metre apart, anywhere. The weeping willow, S. babylonica, gives fuel which sells well. The osier willow, S. purpurea, S. rubra, S. vitellina, S. viminalis and S. amygdalina, furnish fine and common osiers, which are so much used in basket-making of every kind, and for light wicker furniture for the garden and the beach. It is one of the chief products of the Paraná Islands and others.

Elm Tree, Ulmus.—The elms we possess belong to the species U. campestris, L., and U. montana, Burch, both from Europe. They attain a height of 40 metres by 1 metre in diameter, and grow well on cool gravelly soil. The elm in general is more suited to the hills or declivities than to the plains. It is very[293] hardy and long-lived. Its timber is excellent for coach-building, and some parts of it for cabinet-making. It is a good species for stock, in suitable places, in the 3rd, 5th, 6th and 7th and some parts of the 9th region. It is sown as soon as the seeds ripen on well-tilled soil, either in furrows or plots.
Exotic Forest Trees which it would be well to Introduce

Fir Tree.—The most interesting species are:—

A. amabilis and A. balsamea, from North America, grows from 30 to 40 metres high by 1 to 1·50 metres in diameter. Suitable for the 3rd, 5th and 6th regions.

A. bifida, A. brachyphylla, from Japan, attain a height of 40 or 50 metres, 4th, 5th and 7th regions.

A. bracteata, Hook and Arn.—From the mountains of Santa Lucia. 50 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter.

A. concolor, Lindl.—From the Rocky Mountains, where they grow to 30 or 40 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter. These two species should be tried in the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th regions.

A. grandis, Lindl.—From the northern states of the union. Attains a height of 90 metres by 1 or 2 metres in diameter, 3rd, 4th and 6th.

A. magnifice, Murr., and A. mobilis, Lindl.—From California and Oregon, where it grows to a height of 70 to 80 metres by 2 or 3 metres in diameter; 2nd and 3rd regions, and the hills in the 4th and 5th.

A. pectinata, D. C.—From Europe. 40 metres in height by 1 metre and sometimes more in diameter; 3rd, 5th, 6th and 9th regions.

A. religiosa, Lindl.—From Mexico. Attains 40 to 50 metres in height by 1 or 2 metres in diameter; 2nd and 3rd regions.

All fir trees require hilly ground already stocked with trees. It is useless to plant them on the open plain. Other conifers, known also as firs, belong to the genera Picea and Tsuga.

Maple Tree.—The Acer campestre and A. platanoides.—From Europe, appear to be suited for our 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th regions, the latter as a stock species. Thirty feet high.

The A. eriocarpum, Michx., and A. rubrum, Michx., are two[294] handsome species from North America, where they grow to a height of 20 to 35 metres by 1 metre in diameter.

To be essayed in the same regions as the preceding trees. They require deep soil and are cultivated like the sycamore maple.

Alders. The Alnus cordifolia, Ten.—From Europe, and A. orientalis, Dcne., from Asia. Would grow well in the 7th region and on the shores of the 5th, 6th and 9th.

Araucarias. The Araucaria Bidwilli, Hook, and A. Cunninghami, Ait., both from Eastern Australia. Grow to a height of 50 to 60 metres and give excellent timber; 2nd, 3rd and 4th regions.

A. excelsa, R. Br.—From Norfolk Island. Attains a height of 70 metres by 1 metre and over in diameter; 2nd, 3rd and 4th regions.

A. Cookii, E. Br., and A. mulleri, R. Br.—From New Caledonia; 40 metres in height; 1st, 2nd and 4th regions.

All grow on deep, humid soil, rich in vegetable mould, like certain parts of the Chaco and of the 1st and 2nd regions.

Birches.—Valuable trees for the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 9th regions. Do not exceed 30 metres in height on the best soil, but very hardy and reach a metre in diameter. The best species are Betula alba, B. nigra, B. lenta and B. pubescens.

American Walnut Trees.—All give excellent timber, strong and hardier than the European kinds. Could be planted and sown in regions 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. The best species for woods are Carya alba, Nut., and C. amara, from Canada. C. oliv?formis and C. porcina from the central states of North America. C. tomentosa, Nutt., is popularly known in North America as Hickory.

Tall trees, generally very leafy, and suitable for stock in mixed woods and for special wood planting, together with European and Asiatic species, cultivated like the common walnut, J. regia.

Cedars.—All cedars give very fine wood known as cedar-wood, whence the confusion with real cedar belonging to the conifera family.

The Red Cedar of Australia, Cedrela australis, Muell., grows to 60 metres in height. May be planted in the 1st and 2nd regions together with the one we have, C. brasiliensis. C. sinensis, A. Juss, seems more suitable for the 3rd and 5th regions.

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Cham?yparis.—This resinous tree gives excellent timber in the United States, where it grows to a height of 25 to 30 metres by 0·60 metre in diameter. The species C. Lawsoniana and C. Nutk?nsis, from North America, as well as C. obtusa, Endl., from Japan, appear to be suitable for dense woods in regions 4, 5 and 6.

Dacrydium.—Indigenous to Tasmania and New Zealand. The forest species furnish good carpentry timber. From some descriptions of Chilian conifers it would seem that some of these are very like Dacrydium.

The most interesting species are D. cupressinum, Soland, D. Franklinii and D. Kirkii, F. v. M.

These trees grow to a height of 40 to 60 metres and require very generous soil, rather damp and warm, like that of the 1st and 2nd regions in our country. To be cultivated as the Araucaria brasiliensis or Misiones pine.

Diospyros.—The D. lotus, from Italy, and D. Virginiana furnish valuable timber know as ebony. They do not exceed 20 to 25 metres in height. A trial might be made in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th regions.

Drimys, D. Winter, Forst.—A Chilian tree 15 to 20 metres in height, gives winter bark, used in medicine. To be tried for mixed woods in the 3rd, 4th and 5th regions.

Beech, Fagus sylvatica, L.—A European tree 30 metres in height by half a metre in diameter; gives excellent wood for boxes and wooden partitions or anything not exposed to the weather. A first-class species for the 3rd, 5th, 6th and 9th regions as a stock tree in tall woods.

Ash Tree.—The Fraxinus americana, L., F. quadrangularis, Michx., F. sambucifolia, Lam.—From North America, are trees of 30 to 35 metres in height by 0·60 to 1 metre in diameter. The timber is highly prized for coach-building and other special work. It appears suitable for mixed woods in 5th, 6th and 7th regions, where it may be grown like the common ash tree.

Black Walnut Tree, Juglans nigra, L.—From North America, where it attains 40 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter. Though its wood is not so valuable as common walnut, it is very pretty and fine-grained. It might be planted and grown in the same regions as the other kinds of walnut.

Juniper Tree, Juniperus virginiana, L.—From 25 to 30 metres high by 1 metre in diameter, growing in North American[296] forests. The wood is very nice, and used by cabinet-makers, etc. This conifer appears suitable for dense woods in the 3rd, 5th and 6th regions, with Lambertiana and other cypresses, and is grown in the same way.

Larch Tree.—The European Larix europea, L., and the American L. microcarpa are hardy species of 25 to 40 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter, with deciduous leaves, which makes its transport easy; 5th, 6th and 8th regions; in tall woods with other conifers. Grown like the Spruce.

Spruces.—Great conifers of the cold regions of North America. The most suitable species for woods, besides the P. excelsa, Linck., which we already grow, are the P. alba, Linck., from Canada, P. Engelmanii, Car., from the Rocky Mountains, P. morinda, Linck., from the Himalayas, and P. nigra, Linck., from Northern America. The latter species is suitable for the 6th and 9th regions; the others for the 5th and 6th, grown as firs.

Libocedrus Decurrens, Torr.—From California, where it grows to 40 metres in height, over a metre in diameter, is very strong and gives excellent timber. Appears suitable for afforestation together with the Chilian variety in the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th regions.

To be sown and cultivated like the Lambertiana cypress.

Tulip Tree, or Whitewood, Liriodendrum tulipifera, L.—From North America, where it attains a height of 60 metres by 3 and 4 metres in diameter. Gives good wood and appears suitable for growing in tall woods on deep and humid soil in regions 4, 5, 6 and 7.

To be sown thickly in furrows or in beds for transplanting when a year old.

Pine Trees.—We already have different kinds of pine trees which flourish in woods. It would be well to introduce the better species, because we lack such as Pinus australis, Michx., from Carolina and Florida, where it grows to 35 to 40 metres in height. This is the species which gives the timber known as pitchpine.

P. Benthamiana, Hartw.—From California. 70 metres in height by 2 metres in diameter. Good timber.

P. excelsa, Wall.—From the Himalayas. 40 metres in height.

P. Jeffreyana, V. H.; P. Lambertiana, Doug.; P. Sabiniana, Doug.; and P. Torreyana, all from California.

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P. Strobus, L.—From North America. A hardy tree 40 metres in height by 1 metre in diameter.

The Californian species might be tried in the 4th, 5th, 6th and 8th regions. The Himalayan species on the mountain ranges of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th, and the last-named species in the 5th, 6th and 8th. That from the Carolinas might be grown together with P. insignis.

To be grown in woods of the same kind in the same regions and in the same way as those we have.

Planera Crenata, Desf.—A tree from the Caucasians; excellent timber and very hardy.

Grown like the elm and in the same regions.

Caucasian Walnut Tree, Pterocarya caucasica and P. Spachiand.—Trees 20 metres in height, magnificent timber and suitable for intermingling with other walnut trees, especially Carya species.

Sequoia.—From California, where it grows to 80 or 100 metres in height by 5 or 6 metres in diameter. The species S. gigantea is that which attains the greatest size; the S. sempervirens is more modest and less exacting about the nature of the soil and its situation. The former requires porous, deep and rather clayey soil, situated on hills or in ravines. To be tried in the 3rd and 6th regions and on the mountains in the 4th and 5th. Grown as the pine.

Lime Tree.—The different European and North American species, Tilia argentea, Desf., T. nigra, Burk, and T. silvestris from Europe, might be planted in the 5th, 6th and 7th regions in heavy, porous, clay soil.

Tsuga douglasi (Fir).—From Colorado State, North America. Attains a height of 50 metres and furnishes excellent timber. Suitable for planting woods together with spruces and firs, and grown in the same way.

American Elm Tree, Ulmus americanus, L.—This is a very hardy species at least 30 metres high. Its timber, though not so very good, is yet used in carriage-building and the like. Grown like other elm species and in the same regions.

Lest it should be thought that a disproportionate amount of space has been allotted here to this matter of forestry it must be pointed out that timber of all kinds constitutes one[298] of the greatest of the still latent treasures of the River Plate. A treasure which could be easily realized but which has hitherto been extraordinarily neglected not only in practice but even by most writers on the countries in question.

Argentina will one day export timber and ornamental woods instead of importing them as she has done hitherto; and perhaps the present difficulties of maritime transport will help to turn the eyes of both Republics to the wealth of building and other timber and fine woods they have at hand.

A visit to the coach-making works of those of the River Plate Railway Companies which manufacture their own luxurious saloon and sleeping cars, would alone suffice to astonish many people by the beauty and value of the native woods there used, both in the cabinet-maker’s art and in the most solid portions of construction destined to resist exceptional strain.

Se?or Mauduit has already been quoted on the subject of the need of shade for cattle. A need which estancieros now pretty fully appreciate.


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