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Part 1 Chapter 7

Elective AffinitiesThey can only touch the heart by bruising1 it.

  A MODERNThe children adored him, he did not care for them; his thoughts wereelsewhere. Nothing that these urchins2 could do ever tried his patience.

  Cold, just, impassive, and at the same time loved, because his cominghad in a measure banished3 dullness from the house, he was a good tutor.

  For his part, he felt only hatred4 and horror for the high society in whichhe was allowed to occupy the very foot of the table, a position whichmay perhaps explain his hatred and horror. There were certain formaldinners at which he could barely contain his loathing5 of everythinground about him. On Saint Louis's day in particular, M. Valenod waslaying down the law at M. de Renal's; Julien almost gave himself away;he escaped into the garden, saying that he must look after the children.

  'What panegyrics6 of honesty!' he exclaimed; 'anyone would say that wasthe one and only virtue7; and yet what consideration, what a cringing8 respect for a man who obviously has doubled and tripled his fortune sincehe has been in charge of the relief of the poor! I would wager9 that hemakes something even out of the fund set apart for the foundlings, thosewretches whose need is even more sacred than that of the other paupers10.

  Ah, monsters! Monsters! And I too, I am a sort of foundling, hated by myfather, my brothers, my whole family.'

  Some days earlier, Julien walking by himself and saying his office in alittle wood, known as the Belvedere, which overlooks the Cours de laFidelite, had tried in vain to avoid his two brothers, whom he saw approaching him by a solitary11 path. The jealousy12 of these rough labourershad been so quickened by the sight of their brother's handsome blackcoat, and air of extreme gentility, as well as by the sincere contemptwhich he felt for them, that they had proceeded to thrash him, leavinghim there unconscious and bleeding freely. Madame de Renal, who was out walking with M. Valenod and the Sub-Prefect, happened to turn intothe little wood; she saw Julien lying on the ground and thought himdead. She was so overcome as to make M. Valenod jealous.

  His alarm was premature13. Julien admired Madame de Renal's looks,but hated her for her beauty; it was the first reef on which his fortunehad nearly foundered14. He spoke15 to her as seldom as possible, in the hopeof making her forget the impulse which, at their first encounter, had ledhim to kiss her hand.

  Elisa, Madame de Renal's maid, had not failed to fall in love with theyoung tutor; she often spoke of him to her mistress. Miss Elisa's love hadbrought upon Julien the hatred of one of the footmen. One day he heardthis man say to Elisa: 'You won't speak to me any more, since that greasytutor has been in the house.' Julien did not deserve the epithet16; but, withthe instinct of a good-looking youth, became doubly attentive17 to his person. M. Valenod's hatred was multiplied accordingly. He said in publicthat so much concern with one's appearance was not becoming in ayoung cleric. Barring the cassock, Julien now wore clerical attire18.

  Madame de Renal observed that he was speaking more often than before to Miss Elisa; she learned that these conversations were due to thelimitations of Julien's extremely small wardrobe. He had so scanty19 a supply of linen20 that he was obliged to send it out constantly to be washed,and it was in performing these little services that Elisa made herself useful to him.

  This extreme poverty, of which she had had no suspicion, touched Madame de Renal; she longed to make him presents, but did not dare; thisinward resistance was the first feeling of regret that Julien caused her.

  Until then the name of Julien and the sense of a pure and wholly intellectual joy had been synonymous to her. Tormented21 by the idea of Julien'spoverty, Madame de Renal spoke to her husband about making him apresent of linen:

  'What idiocy22!' he replied. 'What! Make presents to a man with whomwe are perfectly23 satisfied, and who is serving us well? It is when he neglects his duty that we should stimulate24 his zeal25.'

  Madame de Renal felt ashamed of this way of looking at things; beforeJulien came she would not have noticed it. She never saw the youngcleric's spotless, though very simple, toilet without asking herself: 'Poorboy, how ever does he manage?'

  As time went on she began to feel sorry for Julien's deficiencies, instead of being shocked by them.

   Madame de Renal was one of those women to be found in theprovinces whom one may easily take to be fools until one has knownthem for a fortnight. She had no experience of life, and made no effort atconversation. Endowed with a delicate and haughty26 nature, that instinctfor happiness natural to all human beings made her, generally speaking,pay no attention to the actions of the coarse creatures into whose midstchance had flung her.

  She would have been remarkable27 for her naturalness and quickness ofmind, had she received the most scanty education; but in her capacity asan heiress she had been brought up by nuns28 who practised a passionatedevotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and were animated29 by a violenthatred of the French as being enemies of the Jesuits. Madame de Renalhad sufficient sense to forget at once, as absurdities30, everything she hadlearned in the convent; but she put nothing else in its place, and endedby knowing nothing. The flatteries of which she had been the precociousobject, as the heiress to a large fortune, and a marked tendency towardspassionate devotion, had bred in her an attitude towards life that waswholly inward. With an outward show of the most perfect submission,and a self-suppression which the husbands of Verrieres used to quote asan example to their wives, and which was a source of pride to M. deRenal, her inner life was, as a matter of fact, dictated31 by the most loftydisdain. Any princess who is quoted as an illustration of pride pays infinitely32 more attention to what her gentlemen are doing round about herthan this meekest33 of women, so modest in appearance, gave to anythingthat her husband said or did. Until Julien arrived, she had really paid noattention to anyone but her children. Their little illnesses, their sorrows,their little pleasures absorbed the whole sensibility of this human soul,which had never, in the whole of her life, adored anyone save God,while she was at the Sacred Heart in Besancon.

  Although she did not condescend34 to say so to anyone, a feverish35 attackcoming to one of her sons threw her almost into the same state as if thechild had died. A burst of coarse laughter, a shrug36 of the shoulders, accompanied by some trivial maxim37 as to the foolishness of women, hadregularly greeted the confessions38 of grief of this sort which the need ofan outlet39 had led her to make to her husband during the first years oftheir married life. Witticisms40 of this sort, especially when they bore uponthe illnesses of the children, turned the dagger42 in Madame de Renal'sheart. This was all the substitute she found for the obsequious43, honeyedflatteries of the Jesuitical convent in which she had passed her girlhood.

  She was educated in the school of suffering. Too proud to speak of griefs of this sort, even to her friend Madame Derville, she imagined that allmen resembled her husband, M. Valenod, and the Sub-Prefect Charcotde Maugiron. Coarse wit and the most brutal44 insensibility to everythingthat did not promise money, promotion45 or a Cross; a blind hatred ofevery argument that went against them seemed to her to be things natural to the male sex, like the wearing of boots and felt hats.

  After many long years, Madame de Renal had not yet grown accustomed to these money-grubbing creatures among whom she had to live.

  Hence the success of the little peasant Julien. She found much pleasantenjoyment, radiant with the charm of novelty, in the sympathy of thisproud and noble spirit. Madame de Renal had soon forgiven him his extreme ignorance, which was an additional charm, and the roughness ofhis manners, which she succeeded in improving. She found that it wasworth her while to listen to him, even when they spoke of the most ordinary things, even when it was a question of a poor dog that had beenrun over, as it was crossing the street, by a peasant's cart going by at atrot. The sight of such a tragedy made her husband utter his coarselaugh, whereas she saw Julien's fine, beautifully arched black eyebrowswince. Generosity46, nobility of soul, humanity, seemed to her, after atime, to exist only in this young cleric. She felt for him alone all the sympathy and even admiration47 which those virtues48 arouse in well-brednatures.

  In Paris, Julien's position with regard to Madame de Renal would verysoon have been simplified; but in Paris love is the child of the novels.

  The young tutor and his timid mistress would have found in three orfour novels, and even in the lyrics49 of the Gymnase, a clear statement oftheir situation. The novels would have outlined for them the part to beplayed, shown them the model to copy; and this model, sooner or later,albeit without the slightest pleasure, and perhaps with reluctance50, vanitywould have compelled Julien to follow.

  In a small town of the Aveyron or the Pyrenees, the slightest incidentwould have been made decisive by the ardour of the climate. Beneathour more sombre skies, a penniless young man, who is ambitious onlybecause the refinement51 of his nature puts him in need of some of thosepleasures which money provides, is in daily contact with a woman ofthirty who is sincerely virtuous52, occupied with her children, and neverlooks to novels for examples of conduct. Everything goes slowly,everything happens by degrees in the provinces: life is more natural.

   Often, when she thought of the young tutor's poverty, Madame deRenal was moved to tears. Julien came upon her, one day, actuallycrying.

  'Ah, Ma'am, you have had some bad news!'

  'No, my friend,' was her answer: 'Call the children, let us go for awalk.'

  She took his arm and leaned on it in a manner which Julien thoughtstrange. It was the first time that she had called him 'my friend'.

  Towards the end of their walk, Julien observed that she was blushingdeeply. She slackened her pace.

  'You will have heard,' she said without looking at him, 'that I am thesole heiress of a very rich aunt who lives at Besancon. She loads me withpresents. My sons are making … such astonishing progress … that Ishould like to ask you to accept a little present, as a token of my gratitude53. It is only a matter of a few louis to supply you with linen. But—' sheadded, blushing even more deeply, and was silent.

  'What, Ma'am?' said Julien.

  'It would be unnecessary,' she went on, lowering her head, 'to speak ofthis to my husband.'

  'I may be humble54, Ma'am, but I am not base,' replied Julien coming toa standstill, his eyes ablaze55 with anger, and drawing himself up to hisfull height. 'That is a point which you have not sufficiently56 considered. Ishould be less than a footman if I put myself in the position of hidingfrom M. de Renal anything that had to do with my money.'

  Madame de Renal was overwhelmed.

  'The Mayor,' Julien went on, 'has given me thirty-six francs five timessince I came to live in his house; I am prepared to show my account-bookto M. de Renal or to anyone else, including M. Valenod who hates me.'

  This outburst left Madame de Renal pale and trembling, and the walkcame to an end before either of them could find an excuse for renewingthe conversation. Love for Madame de Renal became more and more impossible in the proud heart of Julien: as for her, she respected, she admired him; she had been scolded by him. On the pretext57 of makingamends for the humiliation58 which she had unintentionally caused him,she allowed herself to pay him the most delicate attentions. The noveltyof this procedure kept her happy for a week. Its effect was to some extentto appease59 Julien's anger; he was far from seeing anything in it that couldbe mistaken for personal affection.

   'That,' he said to himself, 'is what rich people are like: they humiliateone, and then think they can put things right by a few monkey-tricks.'

  Madame de Renal's heart was too full, and as yet too innocent for her,notwithstanding the resolutions she had made, not to tell her husband ofthe offer she had made to Julien and the manner in which she had beenrepulsed.

  'What,' M. de Renal retorted, with keen annoyance61, 'could you toleratea refusal from a servant?'

  And as Madame de Renal protested at this word:

  'I speak, Ma'am, as the late Prince de Conde spoke, when presentinghis Chamberlains to his bride: "All these people," he told her, "are ourservants." I read you the passage from Besenval's Memoirs62, it is essentialin questions of precedence. Everyone who is not a gentleman, who livesin your house and receives a salary, is your servant. I shall say a fewwords to this Master Julien, and give him a hundred francs.'

  'Ah, my dear,' said Madame de Renal trembling, 'please do not sayanything in front of the servants.'

  'Yes, they might be jealous, and rightly,' said her husband as he left theroom, thinking of the magnitude of the sum.

  Madame de Renal sank down on a chair, almost fainting with grief.

  'He is going to humiliate60 Julien, and it is my fault!' She felt a horror ofher husband, and hid her face in her hands. She promised herself thatshe would never confide63 anything in him again.

  When she next saw Julien, she was trembling all over, her bosom64 wasso contracted that she could not manage to utter a single word. In herembarrassment she took his hands and wrung66 them.

  'Well, my friend,' she said to him after a little, 'are you pleased withmy husband?'

  'How should I not be?' Julien answered with a bitter smile; 'he has given me a hundred francs.'

  Madame de Renal looked at him as though uncertain what to do.

  'Give me your arm,' she said at length with an accent of courage whichJulien had never yet observed in her.

  She ventured to enter the shop of the Verrieres bookseller, in spite ofhis terrible reputation as a Liberal. There she chose books to the value often louis which she gave to her sons. But these books were the oneswhich she knew that Julien wanted. She insisted that there, in the bookseller's shop, each of the children should write his own name in thebooks that fell to his share. While Madame de Renal was rejoicing at thepartial reparation which she had had the courage to make to Julien, hewas lost in amazement67 at the quantity of books which he saw on thebookseller's shelves. Never had he dared to set foot in so profane68 a place;his heart beat violently. So far from his having any thought of trying toguess what was occurring in the heart of Madame de Renal, he wasplunged in meditation69 as to how it would be possible for a young student of divinity to procure70 some of these books. At length the idea cameto him that it might be possible, by a skilful71 approach, to persuade M. deRenal that he ought to set his sons, as the subject for an essay, the lives ofthe celebrated72 gentlemen who were natives of the province. After amonth of careful preliminaries, he saw his idea prove successful, somuch so that, shortly afterwards, he ventured, in speaking to M. de Renal, to mention an action considerably73 more offensive to the noble Mayor;it was a matter of contributing to the prosperity of a Liberal, by takingout a subscription74 at the library. M. de Renal entirely75 agreed that it waswise to let his eldest76 son have a visual impression of various works whichhe would hear mentioned in conversation when he went to the MilitarySchool; but Julien found the Mayor obdurate77 in refusing to go anyfarther. He suspected a secret reason, which he was unable to guess.

  'I was thinking, Sir,' he said to him one day, 'that it would be highlyimproper for the name of a respectable gentleman like a Renal to appearon the dirty ledger78 of the librarian.'

  M. de Renal's face brightened.

  'It would also be a very bad mark,' Julien went on, in a humbler tone,'against a poor divinity student, if it should one day be discovered thathis name had been on the ledger of a bookseller who keeps a library. TheLiberals might accuse me of having asked for the most scandalous books;for all one knows they might even go so far as to write in after my namethe titles of those perverse79 works.'

  But Julien was going off the track. He saw the Mayor's features resumetheir expression of embarrassment65 and ill humour. Julien was silent. 'Ihave my man hooked,' he said to himself.

  A few days later, on the eldest boy's questioning Julien as to a bookadvertised in the Quotidienne, in M. de Renal's presence:

  'To remove all occasion for triumph from the Jacobin Party,' said theyoung tutor, 'and at the same time to enable me to answer Master Adolphe, one might open a subscription at the bookshop in the name ofthe lowest of your servants.'

  'That is not at all a bad idea,' said M. de Renal, obviously delighted.

  'Only it would have to be specified80,' said Julien with that grave and almost sorrowful air which becomes certain people so well, when they seethe81 success of the projects which have been longest in their minds, 'itwould have to be specified that the servant shall not take out any novels.

  Once they were in the house, those dangerous works might corruptMadame's maids, not to speak of the servant himself.'

  'You forget the political pamphlets,' added M. de Renal, in a haughtytone. He wished to conceal82 the admiration that he felt for the clevermiddle course discovered by his children's tutor.

  Julien's life was thus composed of a series of petty negotiations83; andtheir success was of far more importance to him than the evidence of amarked preference for himself which was only waiting for him to read itin the heart of Madame de Renal.

  The moral environment in which he had been placed all his life was repeated in the household of the worshipful Mayor of Verrieres. There, asin his father's sawmill, he profoundly despised the people with whom helived, and was hated by them. He saw every day, from the remarksmade by the Sub-Prefect, by M. Valenod and by the other friends of thefamily, with reference to the things that had just happened under theireyes, how remote their ideas were from any semblance84 of reality. Did anaction strike him as admirable, it was precisely85 what called forth86 blamefrom the people round about him. His unspoken retort was always:

  'What monsters!' or 'What fools!' The amusing thing was that, with all hispride, frequently he understood nothing at all of what was beingdiscussed.

  In his whole life, he had never spoken with sincerity87 except to the oldSurgeon-Major; the few ideas that he had bore reference to Napoleon'scampaigns in Italy, or to surgery. His youthful courage took delight indetailed accounts of the most painful operations; he said to himself: 'Ishould not have flinched88.'

  The first time that Madame de Renal attempted a conversation withhim on a subject other than that of the children's education, he began totalk of surgical89 operations; she turned pale, and begged him to stop.

  Julien knew nothing apart from these matters. And so, as he spent histime with Madame de Renal, the strangest silence grew up between them as soon as they were alone together. In her own drawing-room,humble as his bearing was, she found in his eyes an air of intellectual superiority over everyone that came to the house. Were she left alone for amoment with him, she saw him grow visibly embarrassed. This troubledher, for her womanly instinct made her realise that his embarrassmentwas not in the least degree amorous90.

  In consequence of some idea derived91 from a description of good society, as the old Surgeon-Major had beheld92 it, as soon as conversationceased in a place where he found himself in the company of a woman,Julien felt abashed93, as though he himself were specially41 to blame for thissilence. This sensation was a hundred times more painful when theywere alone. His imagination, full of the most extravagant94, the most Spanish notions as to what a man ought to say, when he is alone with a woman, offered him in his agitation95 none but inadmissible ideas. His soulwas in the clouds, and yet he was incapable96 of breaking the most humiliating silence. Thus his air of severity, during his long walks with Madame de Renal and the children, was intensified97 by the most cruel sufferings. He despised himself hideously98. If by mischance he forced himselfto speak, he found himself saying the most ridiculous things. To increasehis misery99, he saw and exaggerated his own absurdity100; but what he didnot see was the expression in his eyes, they were so fine and revealed soburning a soul that, like good actors, they imparted at times a charmingmeaning to what was meaningless. Madame de Renal remarked that,when alone with her, he never expressed himself well except when hewas distracted by some unforeseen occurrence, he never thought of turning a compliment. As the friends of the family did not spoil her by offering her new and brilliant ideas, she took a delight in the flashes ofJulien's intellect.

  Since the fall of Napoleon, all semblance of gallantry in speech hasbeen sternly banished from the code of provincial101 behaviour. People areafraid of losing their posts. The unscrupulous seek support from the Congregation and hypocrisy102 has made the most brilliant advances evenamong the Liberal classes. Dulness increases. No pleasure is left, save inreading and agriculture.

  Madame de Renal, the wealthy heiress of a religious aunt, married atsixteen to a worthy103 gentleman, had never in her life felt or seen anythingthat bore the faintest resemblance to love. Her confessor, the good cureChelan, was the only person almost who had ever spoken to her of love,with reference to the advances of M. Valenod, and he had drawn104 so revolting a picture of it that the word conveyed nothing to her but the idea of the most abject105 immorality106. She regarded as an exception, or rather assomething quite apart from nature, love such as she had found it in thevery small number of novels that chance had brought to her notice.

  Thanks to this ignorance, Madame de Renal, entirely happy, occupied incessantly107 with the thought of Julien, was far from reproaching herself inthe slightest degree.


1 bruising 5310e51c1a6e8b086b8fc68e716b0925     
  • He suffered cracked ribs and bruising. 他断了肋骨还有挫伤。
  • He slipped and fell, badly bruising an elbow. 他滑倒了,一只胳膊肘严重擦伤。 来自辞典例句
2 urchins d5a7ff1b13569cf85a979bfc58c50045     
n.顽童( urchin的名词复数 );淘气鬼;猬;海胆
  • Some dozen barefooted urchins ganged in from the riverside. 几十个赤足的顽童从河边成群结队而来。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • People said that he had jaundice and urchins nicknamed him "Yellow Fellow." 别人说他是黄胆病,孩子们也就叫他“黄胖”了。 来自汉英文学 - 中国现代小说
3 banished b779057f354f1ec8efd5dd1adee731df     
v.放逐,驱逐( banish的过去式和过去分词 )
  • He was banished to Australia, where he died five years later. 他被流放到澳大利亚,五年后在那里去世。
  • He was banished to an uninhabited island for a year. 他被放逐到一个无人居住的荒岛一年。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 hatred T5Gyg     
  • He looked at me with hatred in his eyes.他以憎恨的眼光望着我。
  • The old man was seized with burning hatred for the fascists.老人对法西斯主义者充满了仇恨。
5 loathing loathing     
n.厌恶,憎恨v.憎恨,厌恶( loathe的现在分词);极不喜欢
  • She looked at her attacker with fear and loathing . 她盯着襲擊她的歹徒,既害怕又憎恨。
  • They looked upon the creature with a loathing undisguised. 他们流露出明显的厌恶看那动物。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
6 panegyrics a11ede6c048d9cecb3730bb182db7d06     
n.赞美( panegyric的名词复数 );称颂;颂词;颂扬的演讲或文章
7 virtue BpqyH     
  • He was considered to be a paragon of virtue.他被认为是品德尽善尽美的典范。
  • You need to decorate your mind with virtue.你应该用德行美化心灵。
8 cringing Pvbz1O     
  • He had a cringing manner but a very harsh voice.他有卑屈谄媚的神情,但是声音却十分粗沙。
  • She stepped towards him with a movement that was horribly cringing.她冲他走了一步,做出一个低三下四,令人作呕的动作。
9 wager IH2yT     
  • They laid a wager on the result of the race.他们以竞赛的结果打赌。
  • I made a wager that our team would win.我打赌我们的队会赢。
10 paupers 4c4c583df03d9b7a0e9ba5a2f5e9864f     
n.穷人( pauper的名词复数 );贫民;贫穷
  • The garment is expensive, paupers like you could never afford it! 这件衣服很贵,你这穷鬼根本买不起! 来自互联网
  • Child-friendliest among the paupers were Burkina Faso and Malawi. 布基纳法索,马拉维,这俩贫穷国家儿童友善工作做得不错。 来自互联网
11 solitary 7FUyx     
  • I am rather fond of a solitary stroll in the country.我颇喜欢在乡间独自徜徉。
  • The castle rises in solitary splendour on the fringe of the desert.这座城堡巍然耸立在沙漠的边际,显得十分壮美。
12 jealousy WaRz6     
  • Some women have a disposition to jealousy.有些女人生性爱妒忌。
  • I can't support your jealousy any longer.我再也无法忍受你的嫉妒了。
13 premature FPfxV     
  • It is yet premature to predict the possible outcome of the dialogue.预言这次对话可能有什么结果为时尚早。
  • The premature baby is doing well.那个早产的婴儿很健康。
14 foundered 1656bdfec90285ab41c0adc4143dacda     
v.创始人( founder的过去式和过去分词 )
  • Three ships foundered in heavy seas. 三艘船在波涛汹涌的海面上沉没了。 来自辞典例句
  • The project foundered as a result of lack of finance. 该项目因缺乏资金而告吹。 来自辞典例句
15 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
16 epithet QZHzY     
  • In "Alfred the Great","the Great"is an epithet.“阿尔弗雷德大帝”中的“大帝”是个称号。
  • It is an epithet that sums up my feelings.这是一个简洁地表达了我思想感情的形容词。
17 attentive pOKyB     
  • She was very attentive to her guests.她对客人招待得十分周到。
  • The speaker likes to have an attentive audience.演讲者喜欢注意力集中的听众。
18 attire AN0zA     
  • He had no intention of changing his mode of attire.他无意改变着装方式。
  • Her attention was attracted by his peculiar attire.他那奇特的服装引起了她的注意。
19 scanty ZDPzx     
  • There is scanty evidence to support their accusations.他们的指控证据不足。
  • The rainfall was rather scanty this month.这个月的雨量不足。
20 linen W3LyK     
  • The worker is starching the linen.这名工人正在给亚麻布上浆。
  • Fine linen and cotton fabrics were known as well as wool.精细的亚麻织品和棉织品像羊毛一样闻名遐迩。
21 tormented b017cc8a8957c07bc6b20230800888d0     
  • The knowledge of his guilt tormented him. 知道了自己的罪责使他非常痛苦。
  • He had lain awake all night, tormented by jealousy. 他彻夜未眠,深受嫉妒的折磨。
22 idiocy 4cmzf     
  • Stealing a car and then driving it drunk was the ultimate idiocy.偷了车然后醉酒开车真是愚蠢到极点。
  • In this war there is an idiocy without bounds.这次战争疯癫得没底。
23 perfectly 8Mzxb     
  • The witnesses were each perfectly certain of what they said.证人们个个对自己所说的话十分肯定。
  • Everything that we're doing is all perfectly above board.我们做的每件事情都是光明正大的。
24 stimulate wuSwL     
  • Your encouragement will stimulate me to further efforts.你的鼓励会激发我进一步努力。
  • Success will stimulate the people for fresh efforts.成功能鼓舞人们去作新的努力。
25 zeal mMqzR     
  • Revolutionary zeal caught them up,and they joined the army.革命热情激励他们,于是他们从军了。
  • They worked with great zeal to finish the project.他们热情高涨地工作,以期完成这个项目。
26 haughty 4dKzq     
  • He gave me a haughty look and walked away.他向我摆出傲慢的表情后走开。
  • They were displeased with her haughty airs.他们讨厌她高傲的派头。
27 remarkable 8Vbx6     
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
28 nuns ce03d5da0bb9bc79f7cd2b229ef14d4a     
n.(通常指基督教的)修女, (佛教的)尼姑( nun的名词复数 )
  • Ah Q had always had the greatest contempt for such people as little nuns. 小尼姑之流是阿Q本来视如草芥的。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Nuns are under vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. 修女须立誓保持清贫、贞洁、顺从。 来自辞典例句
29 animated Cz7zMa     
  • His observations gave rise to an animated and lively discussion.他的言论引起了一场气氛热烈而活跃的讨论。
  • We had an animated discussion over current events last evening.昨天晚上我们热烈地讨论时事。
30 absurdities df766e7f956019fcf6a19cc2525cadfb     
n.极端无理性( absurdity的名词复数 );荒谬;谬论;荒谬的行为
  • She has a sharp eye for social absurdities, and compassion for the victims of social change. 她独具慧眼,能够看到社会上荒唐的事情,对于社会变革的受害者寄以同情。 来自辞典例句
  • The absurdities he uttered at the dinner party landed his wife in an awkward situation. 他在宴会上讲的荒唐话使他太太陷入窘境。 来自辞典例句
31 dictated aa4dc65f69c81352fa034c36d66908ec     
v.大声讲或读( dictate的过去式和过去分词 );口授;支配;摆布
  • He dictated a letter to his secretary. 他向秘书口授信稿。
  • No person of a strong character likes to be dictated to. 没有一个个性强的人愿受人使唤。 来自《简明英汉词典》
32 infinitely 0qhz2I     
  • There is an infinitely bright future ahead of us.我们有无限光明的前途。
  • The universe is infinitely large.宇宙是无限大的。
33 meekest 2a5107c1de829b1e3b48c24061ffc730     
adj.温顺的,驯服的( meek的最高级 )
  • Even the meekest little lamb can turn into a tigress. 多温柔的女人结婚后都会变成母老虎。 来自互联网
34 condescend np7zo     
  • Would you condescend to accompany me?你肯屈尊陪我吗?
  • He did not condescend to answer.He turned his back on me.他不愿屈尊回答我的问题。他不理睬我。
35 feverish gzsye     
  • He is too feverish to rest.他兴奋得安静不下来。
  • They worked with feverish haste to finish the job.为了完成此事他们以狂热的速度工作着。
36 shrug Ry3w5     
  • With a shrug,he went out of the room.他耸一下肩,走出了房间。
  • I admire the way she is able to shrug off unfair criticism.我很佩服她能对错误的批评意见不予理会。
37 maxim G2KyJ     
  • Please lay the maxim to your heart.请把此格言记在心里。
  • "Waste not,want not" is her favourite maxim.“不浪费则不匮乏”是她喜爱的格言。
38 confessions 4fa8f33e06cadcb434c85fa26d61bf95     
n.承认( confession的名词复数 );自首;声明;(向神父的)忏悔
  • It is strictly forbidden to obtain confessions and to give them credence. 严禁逼供信。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Neither trickery nor coercion is used to secure confessions. 既不诱供也不逼供。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
39 outlet ZJFxG     
  • The outlet of a water pipe was blocked.水管的出水口堵住了。
  • Running is a good outlet for his energy.跑步是他发泄过剩精力的好方法。
40 witticisms fa1e413b604ffbda6c0a76465484dcaa     
n.妙语,俏皮话( witticism的名词复数 )
  • We do appreciate our own witticisms. 我们非常欣赏自己的小聪明。 来自辞典例句
  • The interpreter at this dinner even managed to translate jokes and witticisms without losing the point. 这次宴会的翻译甚至能设法把笑话和俏皮话不失其妙意地翻译出来。 来自辞典例句
41 specially Hviwq     
  • They are specially packaged so that they stack easily.它们经过特别包装以便于堆放。
  • The machine was designed specially for demolishing old buildings.这种机器是专为拆毁旧楼房而设计的。
42 dagger XnPz0     
  • The bad news is a dagger to his heart.这条坏消息刺痛了他的心。
  • The murderer thrust a dagger into her heart.凶手将匕首刺进她的心脏。
43 obsequious tR5zM     
  • He looked at the two ladies with an obsequious air.他看着两位太太,满脸谄媚的神情。
  • He was obsequious to his superiors,but he didn't get any favor.他巴结上司,但没得到任何好处。
44 brutal bSFyb     
  • She has to face the brutal reality.她不得不去面对冷酷的现实。
  • They're brutal people behind their civilised veneer.他们表面上温文有礼,骨子里却是野蛮残忍。
45 promotion eRLxn     
  • The teacher conferred with the principal about Dick's promotion.教师与校长商谈了迪克的升级问题。
  • The clerk was given a promotion and an increase in salary.那个职员升了级,加了薪。
46 generosity Jf8zS     
  • We should match their generosity with our own.我们应该像他们一样慷慨大方。
  • We adore them for their generosity.我们钦佩他们的慷慨。
47 admiration afpyA     
  • He was lost in admiration of the beauty of the scene.他对风景之美赞不绝口。
  • We have a great admiration for the gold medalists.我们对金牌获得者极为敬佩。
48 virtues cd5228c842b227ac02d36dd986c5cd53     
美德( virtue的名词复数 ); 德行; 优点; 长处
  • Doctors often extol the virtues of eating less fat. 医生常常宣扬少吃脂肪的好处。
  • She delivered a homily on the virtues of family life. 她进行了一场家庭生活美德方面的说教。
49 lyrics ko5zoz     
  • music and lyrics by Rodgers and Hart 由罗杰斯和哈特作词作曲
  • The book contains lyrics and guitar tablatures for over 100 songs. 这本书有100多首歌的歌词和吉他奏法谱。
50 reluctance 8VRx8     
  • The police released Andrew with reluctance.警方勉强把安德鲁放走了。
  • He showed the greatest reluctance to make a reply.他表示很不愿意答复。
51 refinement kinyX     
  • Sally is a woman of great refinement and beauty. 莎莉是个温文尔雅又很漂亮的女士。
  • Good manners and correct speech are marks of refinement.彬彬有礼和谈吐得体是文雅的标志。
52 virtuous upCyI     
  • She was such a virtuous woman that everybody respected her.她是个有道德的女性,人人都尊敬她。
  • My uncle is always proud of having a virtuous wife.叔叔一直为娶到一位贤德的妻子而骄傲。
53 gratitude p6wyS     
  • I have expressed the depth of my gratitude to him.我向他表示了深切的谢意。
  • She could not help her tears of gratitude rolling down her face.她感激的泪珠禁不住沿着面颊流了下来。
54 humble ddjzU     
  • In my humble opinion,he will win the election.依我拙见,他将在选举中获胜。
  • Defeat and failure make people humble.挫折与失败会使人谦卑。
55 ablaze 1yMz5     
  • The main street was ablaze with lights in the evening.晚上,那条主要街道灯火辉煌。
  • Forests are sometimes set ablaze by lightning.森林有时因雷击而起火。
56 sufficiently 0htzMB     
  • It turned out he had not insured the house sufficiently.原来他没有给房屋投足保险。
  • The new policy was sufficiently elastic to accommodate both views.新政策充分灵活地适用两种观点。
57 pretext 1Qsxi     
  • He used his headache as a pretext for not going to school.他借口头疼而不去上学。
  • He didn't attend that meeting under the pretext of sickness.他以生病为借口,没参加那个会议。
58 humiliation Jd3zW     
  • He suffered the humiliation of being forced to ask for his cards.他蒙受了被迫要求辞职的羞辱。
  • He will wish to revenge his humiliation in last Season's Final.他会为在上个季度的决赛中所受的耻辱而报复的。
59 appease uVhzM     
  • He tried to appease the crying child by giving him candy.他试图给那个啼哭的孩子糖果使他不哭。
  • The government tried to appease discontented workers.政府试图安抚不满的工人们。
60 humiliate odGzW     
  • What right had they to bully and humiliate people like this?凭什么把人欺侮到这个地步呢?
  • They pay me empty compliments which only humiliate me.他们虚情假意地恭维我,这只能使我感到羞辱。
61 annoyance Bw4zE     
  • Why do you always take your annoyance out on me?为什么你不高兴时总是对我出气?
  • I felt annoyance at being teased.我恼恨别人取笑我。
62 memoirs f752e432fe1fefb99ab15f6983cd506c     
n.回忆录;回忆录传( mem,自oir的名词复数)
  • Her memoirs were ghostwritten. 她的回忆录是由别人代写的。
  • I watched a trailer for the screenplay of his memoirs. 我看过以他的回忆录改编成电影的预告片。 来自《简明英汉词典》
63 confide WYbyd     
  • I would never readily confide in anybody.我从不轻易向人吐露秘密。
  • He is going to confide the secrets of his heart to us.他将向我们吐露他心里的秘密。
64 bosom Lt9zW     
  • She drew a little book from her bosom.她从怀里取出一本小册子。
  • A dark jealousy stirred in his bosom.他内心生出一阵恶毒的嫉妒。
65 embarrassment fj9z8     
  • She could have died away with embarrassment.她窘迫得要死。
  • Coughing at a concert can be a real embarrassment.在音乐会上咳嗽真会使人难堪。
66 wrung b11606a7aab3e4f9eebce4222a9397b1     
绞( wring的过去式和过去分词 ); 握紧(尤指别人的手); 把(湿衣服)拧干; 绞掉(水)
  • He has wrung the words from their true meaning. 他曲解这些字的真正意义。
  • He wrung my hand warmly. 他热情地紧握我的手。
67 amazement 7zlzBK     
  • All those around him looked at him with amazement.周围的人都对他投射出惊异的眼光。
  • He looked at me in blank amazement.他带着迷茫惊诧的神情望着我。
68 profane l1NzQ     
  • He doesn't dare to profane the name of God.他不敢亵渎上帝之名。
  • His profane language annoyed us.他亵渎的言语激怒了我们。
69 meditation yjXyr     
  • This peaceful garden lends itself to meditation.这个恬静的花园适于冥想。
  • I'm sorry to interrupt your meditation.很抱歉,我打断了你的沉思。
70 procure A1GzN     
  • Can you procure some specimens for me?你能替我弄到一些标本吗?
  • I'll try my best to procure you that original French novel.我将尽全力给你搞到那本原版法国小说。
71 skilful 8i2zDY     
  • The more you practise,the more skilful you'll become.练习的次数越多,熟练的程度越高。
  • He's not very skilful with his chopsticks.他用筷子不大熟练。
72 celebrated iwLzpz     
  • He was soon one of the most celebrated young painters in England.不久他就成了英格兰最负盛名的年轻画家之一。
  • The celebrated violinist was mobbed by the audience.观众团团围住了这位著名的小提琴演奏家。
73 considerably 0YWyQ     
  • The economic situation has changed considerably.经济形势已发生了相当大的变化。
  • The gap has narrowed considerably.分歧大大缩小了。
74 subscription qH8zt     
  • We paid a subscription of 5 pounds yearly.我们按年度缴纳5英镑的订阅费。
  • Subscription selling bloomed splendidly.订阅销售量激增。
75 entirely entirely     
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
76 eldest bqkx6     
  • The King's eldest son is the heir to the throne.国王的长子是王位的继承人。
  • The castle and the land are entailed on the eldest son.城堡和土地限定由长子继承。
77 obdurate N5Dz0     
  • He is obdurate in his convictions.他执着于自己所坚信的事。
  • He remained obdurate,refusing to alter his decision.他依然固执己见,拒不改变决定。
78 ledger 014xk     
  • The young man bowed his head and bent over his ledger again.那个年轻人点头应诺,然后又埋头写起分类帐。
  • She is a real accountant who even keeps a detailed household ledger.她不愧是搞财务的,家庭分类账记得清楚详细。
79 perverse 53mzI     
  • It would be perverse to stop this healthy trend.阻止这种健康发展的趋势是没有道理的。
  • She gets a perverse satisfaction from making other people embarrassed.她有一种不正常的心态,以使别人难堪来取乐。
80 specified ZhezwZ     
  • The architect specified oak for the wood trim. 那位建筑师指定用橡木做木饰条。
  • It is generated by some specified means. 这是由某些未加说明的方法产生的。
81 seethe QE0yt     
  • Many Indians continue to seethe and some are calling for military action against their riotous neighbour.很多印度人都处于热血沸腾的状态,很多都呼吁针对印度这个恶邻采取军事行动。
  • She seethed with indignation.她由于愤怒而不能平静。
82 conceal DpYzt     
  • He had to conceal his identity to escape the police.为了躲避警方,他只好隐瞒身份。
  • He could hardly conceal his joy at his departure.他几乎掩饰不住临行时的喜悦。
83 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
协商( negotiation的名词复数 ); 谈判; 完成(难事); 通过
  • negotiations for a durable peace 为持久和平而进行的谈判
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 谈判未能达成任何妥协。
84 semblance Szcwt     
  • Her semblance of anger frightened the children.她生气的样子使孩子们感到害怕。
  • Those clouds have the semblance of a large head.那些云的形状像一个巨大的人头。
85 precisely zlWzUb     
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那种油腔滑调的推销宣传。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那个人调得很准。
86 forth Hzdz2     
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
87 sincerity zyZwY     
  • His sincerity added much more authority to the story.他的真诚更增加了故事的说服力。
  • He tried hard to satisfy me of his sincerity.他竭力让我了解他的诚意。
88 flinched 2fdac3253dda450d8c0462cb1e8d7102     
v.(因危险和痛苦)退缩,畏惧( flinch的过去式和过去分词 )
  • He flinched at the sight of the blood. 他一见到血就往后退。
  • This tough Corsican never flinched or failed. 这个刚毅的科西嘉人从来没有任何畏缩或沮丧。 来自辞典例句
89 surgical 0hXzV3     
  • He performs the surgical operations at the Red Cross Hospital.他在红十字会医院做外科手术。
  • All surgical instruments must be sterilised before use.所有的外科手术器械在使用之前,必须消毒。
90 amorous Menys     
  • They exchanged amorous glances and clearly made known their passions.二人眉来眼去,以目传情。
  • She gave him an amorous look.她脉脉含情的看他一眼。
91 derived 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2     
vi.起源;由来;衍生;导出v.得到( derive的过去式和过去分词 );(从…中)得到获得;源于;(从…中)提取
  • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英语很多词源出于拉丁文和希腊文。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他对文学的爱好是受他父亲的影响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
92 beheld beheld     
v.看,注视( behold的过去式和过去分词 );瞧;看呀;(叙述中用于引出某人意外的出现)哎哟
  • His eyes had never beheld such opulence. 他从未见过这样的财富。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The soul beheld its features in the mirror of the passing moment. 灵魂在逝去的瞬间的镜子中看到了自己的模样。 来自英汉文学 - 红字
93 abashed szJzyQ     
adj.窘迫的,尴尬的v.使羞愧,使局促,使窘迫( abash的过去式和过去分词 )
  • He glanced at Juliet accusingly and she looked suitably abashed. 他怪罪的一瞥,朱丽叶自然显得很窘。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The girl was abashed by the laughter of her classmates. 那小姑娘因同学的哄笑而局促不安。 来自《简明英汉词典》
94 extravagant M7zya     
  • They tried to please him with fulsome compliments and extravagant gifts.他们想用溢美之词和奢华的礼品来取悦他。
  • He is extravagant in behaviour.他行为放肆。
95 agitation TN0zi     
  • Small shopkeepers carried on a long agitation against the big department stores.小店主们长期以来一直在煽动人们反对大型百货商店。
  • These materials require constant agitation to keep them in suspension.这些药剂要经常搅动以保持悬浮状态。
96 incapable w9ZxK     
  • He would be incapable of committing such a cruel deed.他不会做出这么残忍的事。
  • Computers are incapable of creative thought.计算机不会创造性地思维。
97 intensified 4b3b31dab91d010ec3f02bff8b189d1a     
v.(使)增强, (使)加剧( intensify的过去式和过去分词 )
  • Violence intensified during the night. 在夜间暴力活动加剧了。
  • The drought has intensified. 旱情加剧了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
98 hideously hideously     
  • The witch was hideously ugly. 那个女巫丑得吓人。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Pitt's smile returned, and it was hideously diabolic. 皮特的脸上重新浮现出笑容,但却狰狞可怕。 来自辞典例句
99 misery G10yi     
  • Business depression usually causes misery among the working class.商业不景气常使工薪阶层受苦。
  • He has rescued me from the mire of misery.他把我从苦海里救了出来。
100 absurdity dIQyU     
  • The proposal borders upon the absurdity.这提议近乎荒谬。
  • The absurdity of the situation made everyone laugh.情况的荒谬可笑使每个人都笑了。
101 provincial Nt8ye     
  • City dwellers think country folk have provincial attitudes.城里人以为乡下人思想迂腐。
  • Two leading cadres came down from the provincial capital yesterday.昨天从省里下来了两位领导干部。
102 hypocrisy g4qyt     
  • He railed against hypocrisy and greed.他痛斥伪善和贪婪的行为。
  • He accused newspapers of hypocrisy in their treatment of the story.他指责了报纸在报道该新闻时的虚伪。
103 worthy vftwB     
  • I did not esteem him to be worthy of trust.我认为他不值得信赖。
  • There occurred nothing that was worthy to be mentioned.没有值得一提的事发生。
104 drawn MuXzIi     
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
105 abject joVyh     
  • This policy has turned out to be an abject failure.这一政策最后以惨败而告终。
  • He had been obliged to offer an abject apology to Mr.Alleyne for his impertinence.他不得不低声下气,为他的无礼举动向艾莱恩先生请罪。
106 immorality 877727a0158f319a192e0d1770817c46     
n. 不道德, 无道义
  • All the churchmen have preached against immorality. 所有牧师都讲道反对不道德的行为。
  • Where the European sees immorality and lawlessness, strict law rules in reality. 在欧洲人视为不道德和无规则的地方,事实上都盛行着一种严格的规则。 来自英汉非文学 - 家庭、私有制和国家的起源
107 incessantly AqLzav     
  • The machines roar incessantly during the hours of daylight. 机器在白天隆隆地响个不停。
  • It rained incessantly for the whole two weeks. 雨不间断地下了整整两个星期。


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