小说搜索     点击排行榜   最新入库
首页 » 英文宗教小说 » Paganism Surviving in Christianity » CHAPTER V. GREEK WATER-WORSHIP.
选择底色: 选择字号:【大】【中】【小】
Sprinkling and Immersion1 Both Used—Prominence of “Baptismal Regeneration”—Lustral Water at Temple Doors—Baptism of Animals—Influence of “The Greek Mysteries” on Christian2 Baptism—Initiatory Baptisms—Scenic3 Illustrations—Mithraic Baptism Engrafted on Grecian—“Creed4,” “Symbol,” Drawn5 from Grecian Water-Worship Cult6—Identity of Grecian and Roman Catholic Forms—The Use of Spittle in Pagan Baptism.

In our survey of the wide field, we now come to a still more specific view of the pagan cult, along the line of Hellenic thought, where it impinged most strongly upon Christianity.

Potter writes learnedly of water-worship among the Greeks, in the following:

“At least every person who came to the solemn sacrifices was purified by water. To which end at the entrance to the temples there was commonly placed a vessel9 full of holy water. This water was consecrated10 by putting into it a burning torch taken from the altar. The same torch was sometimes made use of to sprinkle those who entered into the temple. Thus we find in Euripides, and also in Aristophanes, where the scholiast observes that this torch was used because of the quality of fire, which is thought to purify all things. Instead of the torches, they[113] sometimes used a branch of laurel, as we find in Pliny. Thus Sozomen, where he speaks of Valentinian following Julian into a pagan temple, relates that when they were about to enter, a priest holding certain green boughs11 dropping water besprinkled them after the Grecian manner. Instead of laurel, olive was sometimes used. Thus we find in Virgil:
‘Old Corian?us compassed thrice the crew,
And dipped an olive branch in holy dew.’

“This custom of surrounding here expressed, was so constant in purifying that most of the terms which relate to any sort of purification are compounded with περι, around, thus: περι??α?νειν, περιμ?ττεσθαι, περιθειο?ν, περιαγν?ζειν, etc.

“The vessel which contained the water of purification was termed, περι??αντ?ριον. And the Latin word lustrare, which signifies to purify or expiate12, came hence to be a general word for any sort of surrounding or encompassing13. Thus it is used by Virgil, ... dum montibus umbr? lustrabunt convexo. Spondanus tells us that before the sacrifices of the celestial14 gods, the worshippers had their whole bodies washed, or if that could not be, at least their hands; but for those that performed the sacred rites8 to the infernal gods, a small sprinkling was sufficient. Sometimes the feet were washed as well as the hands; whence came the proverbs, ανιπτοι? χερσιν and ανιπτοι? ποσιν. In Latin illotis manibus, and illotis pedibus,—which are usually applied15 to men who undertake anything without due care and preparation. Porphyry tells us there was a programme fixed16 up, that no man should go beyond the περι??αντ?ριον till he had washed his hands; so great a crime was it counted to omit this ceremony, that[114] Timarchides hath related a story of one Asterius, who was struck dead with thunder because he had approached the altar of Jupiter with unwashed hands. Nor was this custom only used at solemn sacrifices, but also at the smallest parts of their worship. Hector tells us that he was afraid to make so much as a libation to Jupiter before he had washed.
‘I dread17 with unwashed hands to bring,
My incensed18 wine to Jove, an offering.’

“And Telemachus is said, in Homer’s Odysseis, to have washed his hands before he ventured to pray to the gods. This they did out of a conceit20 that thereby21 they were purified from their sins; and withal signifying that nothing impure22 ought to approach the deities23. On the same account, they sometimes washed their clothes, as Homer relates of Penelope, before she offered prayers to the gods. The water used in purification was required to be clear, and without mud and all other impurities24. It was commonly fetched from fountains and rivers. The water of lakes or standing25 ponds was unfit for this purpose. So also was the purest stream if it had been a considerable time separated from its source.”[103]

Baring Gould gives another picture of baptism and lustration among the Greeks:

“Among the Greeks, the mysteries of Cotys commenced with a purification, a sort of baptism, and the priests of the Thracian Goddess derived26 from this their title of β?πται. But Apollo, from a supposed derivation of his[115] name from ?πολο?ω to purify, was the special god of expiation27 by baptismal acts. In Thessaly was yearly celebrated28 a great festival of cleansing29. A work bearing the name of Mus?us was a complete ritual of purifications. It distinguished30 the ceremonies into two orders, τελετα? and καθαρμο?. The latter were purifications and expiations accomplished31 by special sacrifices. The former resembled the purifications performed in the Mysteries. The usual mode of purification was dipping in water, or it was performed by aspersion32. The baptism of immersion was called λο?τρον, the other περ???ανσι?. These sacraments were held to have virtue33 independent of the disposition34 of the candidate, an opinion which called forth35 the sneer36 of Diogenes when he saw some one undergoing baptism by aspersion: ‘Poor wretch37! do you not see that, since these sprinklings cannot repair your grammatical errors, they cannot repair either the faults of your life?’

“Lustral water was placed at the temple doors, with which the profane38 were purified by the priests. Usually, before entering a temple, the hands and feet were washed. At Athens, when the pr?drai had opened the assembly, the peristiarch offered a sacrifice, and then with the blood of the victim sprinkled the seats. The herald39 then took the place of the peristiarch, and continued the lustration by burning incense19; for fumigations (περιθει?σει?), constituted another means of purification. In default of water, sand was used, and salt, which, as a symbol of incorruption, was regarded as possessed40 of purificatory virtue. Every impure act, murder, the touch of a corpse41, illegitimate commerce, even the conjugal42 act, demanded purification. In like manner, baptism was practised by the Romans,[116] and Juvenal satirizes43 those who washed away their sins by dipping the head thrice in the morning into the waters of the Tiber.[104]

“On the feast of Pales, the goddess of flocks, the shepherds purified themselves by washing their hands thrice in new fallen dew; or a lustration was effected by aspersion with consecrated water shaken from a branch of laurel or olive; in reference to which rite7 Propertius prays, much as once did David: ‘Spargite me lymphis.’”[105]

The Grecian idea of baptism is well set forth by Ovid, in the following lines:
“From Greece the custom came, for Greece esteems44
Those free from guilt45 who bathe in sacred streams.
Thus did old Pelius once Patroclus lave,
And free from stain in the H?monian wave:
As, in that same H?monian stream before,
Acastus, Pelius freed from Phocus’ gore46.
The Phasian sorceress, in her fiery47 car,
Borne by yoked48 dragons through the liquid air,
To credulous49 ?geus supplication50 made,
And from him won an undeservèd aid.
In Naupactoan Achelous’ flood,
His horrid51 hands stained with his mother’s blood,
Alc?mon bathed; ‘Cleanse me from crime,’ he cried,
Nor by the stream was his request denied.
Ah, vain the hope, and far too easy they,
Who think the water takes such guilt away.”
Fasti, book ii., line 58 ff.
Influence of the “Greek Mysteries.”[117]

The influence of the Greek mysteries in corrupting52 Christian baptism is more plainly seen than that of any other specific department of the pagan cult. These mysteries were the remnant of the oldest religion known to the Greeks. They embodied53 the worship of the gods of the productive forces in nature, and of the gods of death. The most important centre of this cult was at Eleusis, where the worship was celebrated in the largest temple in Greece. The chief elements in the cult were initiation54, sacrifice, and scenic representations of the great facts in the processes of nature and in human life. The main conception in the initiation was that the candidate must be purified before he could approach God. The initiated55, being thus purified, were inducted to a divine life and to the hope of a resurrection. The ceremonial began with the proclamation: “Let no one enter whose hands are not clean, and whose tongue is not prudent56.”[106]

Confession57 was followed by a kind of baptism.[107] The candidates for initiation bathed in the pure waters of the sea. The manner of bathing and the[118] number of immersions varied58 with the degree of guilt which they had confessed. They came from the bath new men. It was a κ?θαρσι?, a λουτρ?ν, a “laver of regeneration.” Certain forms of abstinence were imposed; they had to fast; and when they ate they had to abstain59 from certain kinds of food.[108]

After this purification came a σωτ?ρια, “a great public sacrifice of salvation”; also personal sacrifices. After an interval60 of two days still more sacrifices, shows, and “processions” followed. The initiated carried lighted torches and sang “loud peans in honor of the God.”[109] Then came the scenic representations at night. The initiated stood outside the temple in deep darkness. Suddenly the door opened, and in a blaze of light the drama of Demeter and Kore appeared—in which the loss of the daughter, the wanderings of the mother, and the birth of the child, were enacted61. This symbolized62 the earth in its great experiences, as well as the corresponding experiences in human life. All this was enacted in silence. Each man saw and meditated63 for himself. It was believed that this gave purity to the initiated, changed their relations to the gods, and made them “partakers of a life to[119] come.”[110] Mithraicism had a similar form of initiation, a prominent feature of which was a sacred meal, upon a “holy table,” of which the initiated took part after they were purified. The societies which practised these mysteries existed on a large scale during the earliest centuries of our era, and had a marked influence upon the earliest Christian communities, and upon the subsequent church. Hatch thus describes these effects:

“It was inevitable64 when a new group of associations came to exist side by side with a large existing body of associations, from which it was continually detaching members, introducing them into its own midst, with the practices of their original societies impressed upon their minds, that this new group should tend to assimilate, with the assimilation of their members, some of the elements of these existing groups.

“This is what we find to have been in fact the case. It is possible that they made the Christian associations more secret than before. Up to a certain time there is no evidence that Christianity had any secrets. It was preached openly to the world. It guarded worship by imposing65 a moral bar to admission. But its rites were simple and its teaching was public. After a certain time all is changed; mysteries have arisen in the once open and easily accessible faith, and there are doctrines66 which must not be declared in the hearing of the uninitiated.”[111]


The effect of these pagan mysteries upon Christian baptism, and upon the Lord’s Supper also, will be more clearly seen when we remember how simple a ceremony New Testament68 baptism was. It followed immediately upon confession of faith in Christ. There was no preparatory ceremony, no ritual, only the simple formula. There was no confusion or controversy69 concerning the “mode,” for submersion alone was known within Christian circles.

When the current of history emerges at and after the middle of the second century, marked changes appear which are so identical with gnosticism and the Greek mysteries that there can be no question as to their source.[112] Among these changes were the following:

The name is changed, and the new terms used come directly from the familiar mysteries. Justin[121] calls it ψωτισμ??, φωτιζεσθαι, “enlightenment.”[113] Those who had passed the tests were “sealed,” φραγι?—a term from the mysteries.[114] It was also called μυστ?ριον,[115] “Mysteries” and many other terms, all of which sprung from the “mysteries of Greek paganism, rather than from the New Testament.”

The time of baptism of adults was changed to meet the pagan conception of it as a purifying and saving act. A long preparation was demanded, and, to meet the pagan idea that it removed sins, it was often deferred70 until near the close of life in order to make the most of both worlds.[116] The initiated in the Greek mysteries were given a password: σ?μβολον or σ?νθημα. “So the catechumens had a formula which was only entrusted71 to them in the last days of their catechumenate, the baptismal formula itself, and the Lord’s Prayer.”[117] A special rite accompanied the giving of this formula. Otherwise both the Lord’s Prayer and the Creed were kept as “mysteries”; the technical name for creed remains72 to this day as σ?μβολον “symbol.”[118]

Hatch quotes a description of baptism in the Roman Catholic Church, which shows every essential[122] feature of the Eleusinian mysteries transferred to “Christian baptism,” falsely so called. The account is taken from Mabillon.[119] He writes thus:

“I will abridge73 the account which is given of the practice at Rome so late as the ninth century. Preparation went on through the greater part of Lent. The candidates were examined and tested; they fasted; they received the secret symbols, the Creed and the Lord’s Prayer. On Easter eve, as the day declined towards afternoon, they assembled in the Church of St. John Lateran. The rites of exorcism and renunciation were gone through in solemn form, and the rituals survive. The Pope and his priests come forth in their sacred vestments, with lights carried in front of them, which the Pope then blesses; there is a reading of lessons and a singing of psalms74. And then, while they chant a litany, there is a procession to the great bath of baptism, and the water is blest. The baptized come forth from the water, are signed with the cross, and are presented to the Pope one by one, who vests them in a white robe and signs their foreheads again with the cross. They are arranged in a great circle, and each of them carries a light. Then a vast array of lights is kindled75; the blaze of them, says a Greek Father, makes night continuous with dawn. It is the beginning of a new life. The mass is celebrated—the mystic offering on the cross is represented in figure; but for the newly baptized the chalice76 is filled, not with wine, but with milk and honey, that they may understand, says an old writer, that they have entered already upon the promised land. And there was one more symbolical77 rite[123] in that early Easter sacrament, the mention of which is often suppressed—a lamb was offered on the altar, afterwards, cakes in the shape of a lamb. It was simply the ritual which we have seen already in the mysteries. The purified crowd at Eleusis saw a blaze of light, and in the light were represented in symbol life and death and resurrection.”[120]
Anointing and Baptism.

The use of anointing oil in baptism was borrowed directly from paganism. To economize78 space, and fortify79 by the power of a great name, we again quote from Hatch:

“The general inference of the large influence of the Gnostics on baptism, is confirmed by the fact that another element, which certainly came through them, though its source is not certain, and is more likely to have been Oriental than Greek, has maintained a permanent place in most rituals—the element of anointing. There were two customs in this matter, one more characteristic of the East, the other of the West—the anointing with (1) the oil of exorcism before baptism and after the renunciation of the devil, and (2) the oil of thanksgiving, which was used immediately after baptism, first by the presbyter and then by the bishop80, who then sealed the candidate on the forehead. The very variety of the custom shows how deep and yet natural the action of the Gnostic systems, with the mystic and magic customs of the Gnostic societies or associations, had been on the practices and ceremonies of the Church.”[121]

Use of Spittle in Baptism.

The pagan doctrine67 of exorcism was carried still further, and baptism was corrupted81 yet more by adding the use of human saliva82 as a “charm.” This arose from the general use of spittle by the pagans as a talisman83 against harm and evil influences. Rev84. John James Blunt says:

“Human saliva was heretofore very generally used as a charm, and was thought particularly efficacious against the venom85 of poisonous animals. Pliny quotes some authorities to prove that the pernicious powers of toads86 and frogs may be disarmed87 by this means, and that serpents may be rendered innoxious by spitting into their mouths. The testimony88 of Varro is also cited by the naturalist89 to show that there were people in the Hellespont, near Pasium, who could cure the bite of snakes by their saliva.... It is remarkable90 that in administering the rite of baptism the priest, among other ceremonies, moistens a napkin with his own saliva, and then touches with it the eyes and nose of the child, accompanying the action by the word Ephphatha. It was with a similar rite that Roman infants received their names on the Dies Lustricus.”[122]

The Satirists were not slow in holding up these various superstitions92 to deserved ridicule93. Perseus touches the spittle superstition91 in the following stanza94:

“Lo! from his little crib the grandam hoar,
Or aunt, well-versed in superstitious95 lore96,
Snatches the babe; in lustral spittle dips
Her middle finger, and anoints his lips
And forehead.”[123]

Pliny supports the statement of Blunt as follows:

“The Marsi, in Italy, are still in possession of the same power, for which it is said they are indebted to their origin from the son of Circe, from whom they acquired it as a natural quality. But the fact is, that all men possess in their bodies a poison which acts upon serpents, and the human saliva, it is said, makes them take to flight as though they had been touched with boiling water. The same substance, it is said, destroys them as soon as it enters their throat, and more particularly so, if it should happen to be the saliva of a man who is fasting.”[124]

In another place Pliny enumerates97 many uses to which spittle is put:

“But it is the fasting spittle of a human being that is, as already stated by us, the sovereign preservative98 against the poison of serpents: while, at the same time, our daily experience may recognize its efficacy and utility in many other respects. We are in the habit of spitting, for instance, as a preservative from epilepsy, or, in other words, we repel99 contagion100 thereby; in a similar manner, too, we repel fascinations101, and the evil presages102 attendant upon meeting a person who is lame103 in the right leg. We ask pardon of the gods, by spitting in the lap, for entertaining[126] some too presumptuous104 hope or expectation. On the same principle, it is the practice, in all cases where medicine is employed, to spit three times on the ground, and to conjure105 the malady106 as often, the object being to aid the operation of the remedy employed. It is usual, too, to mark a boil, when it first makes its appearance, three times with fasting spittle. What we are going to say is marvellous, but it may easily be tested by experiment: if a person repents107 of a blow given to another, either by hand or with a missile, he has nothing to do but to spit at once in the palm of the hand which has inflicted108 the blow, and all feelings of resentment109 will be instantly alleviated110 in the person struck. This, too, is often verified in the case of a beast of burden when brought on its haunches with blows; for upon this remedy being adopted, the animal will immediately step out and mend its pace. Some persons, however, before making an effort, spit into the hand in the manner above stated, in order to make the blow more heavy. We may well believe, then, that lichens111 and leprous spots may be removed by a constant application of fasting spittle; that ophthalmia may be cured by anointing, as it were, the eyes every morning with fasting spittle; that carcinomata may be effectually treated by kneading the root of the plant known as ‘apple of the earth’ with human spittle; that crick in the neck may be got rid of by carrying fasting spittle to the right knee with the right hand, and to the left knee with the left; and when an insect has got into the ear it is quite sufficient to spit into that organ to make it come out. Among the counter-charms, too, are reckoned the practice of spitting into the urine the moment it is voided, of spitting into the shoe of the right foot before putting it on, and of spitting while a[127] person is passing a place in which he has incurred112 any kind of peril113.

“Marcion, of Smyrna, who has written a work on the virtues114 of simples, informs that the sea scolopendra will burst asunder115 if spit upon; and that the same is the case with bramble frogs, and other kinds of frogs. Opilius says that serpents will do the same if a person spits into their open mouth; and Salpe tells us that when any part of the body is asleep the numbness116 may be got rid of by the person spitting into his lap, or touching117 the upper eyelid118 with his spittle. If we are ready to give faith to such statements as these, we must believe also in the efficacy of the following practices: upon the entrance of a stranger, or when a person looks at an infant while asleep, it is usual for the nurse to spit three times upon the ground; and this, although infants are under the special guardianship119 of the god Fascinus, the protector, not of infants only, but of generals as well, and a divinity whose worship is entrusted to the vestal virgins120, and forms a part of the Roman rites.”


1 immersion baIxf     
  • The dirt on the bottom of the bath didn't encourage total immersion.浴缸底有污垢,不宜全身浸泡于其中。
  • The wood had become swollen from prolonged immersion.因长时间浸泡,木头发胀了。
2 Christian KVByl     
  • They always addressed each other by their Christian name.他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  • His mother is a sincere Christian.他母亲是个虔诚的基督教徒。
3 scenic aDbyP     
  • The scenic beauty of the place entranced the visitors.这里的美丽风光把游客们迷住了。
  • The scenic spot is on northwestern outskirts of Beijing.这个风景区位于北京的西北远郊。
4 creed uoxzL     
  • They offended against every article of his creed.他们触犯了他的每一条戒律。
  • Our creed has always been that business is business.我们的信条一直是公私分明。
5 drawn MuXzIi     
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
6 cult 3nPzm     
  • Her books aren't bestsellers,but they have a certain cult following.她的书算不上畅销书,但有一定的崇拜者。
  • The cult of sun worship is probably the most primitive one.太阳崇拜仪式或许是最为原始的一种。
7 rite yCmzq     
  • This festival descends from a religious rite.这个节日起源于宗教仪式。
  • Most traditional societies have transition rites at puberty.大多数传统社会都为青春期的孩子举行成人礼。
8 rites 5026f3cfef698ee535d713fec44bcf27     
仪式,典礼( rite的名词复数 )
  • to administer the last rites to sb 给某人举行临终圣事
  • He is interested in mystic rites and ceremonies. 他对神秘的仪式感兴趣。
9 vessel 4L1zi     
  • The vessel is fully loaded with cargo for Shanghai.这艘船满载货物驶往上海。
  • You should put the water into a vessel.你应该把水装入容器中。
10 consecrated consecrated     
adj.神圣的,被视为神圣的v.把…奉为神圣,给…祝圣( consecrate的过去式和过去分词 );奉献
  • The church was consecrated in 1853. 这座教堂于1853年祝圣。
  • They consecrated a temple to their god. 他们把庙奉献给神。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 boughs 95e9deca9a2fb4bbbe66832caa8e63e0     
大树枝( bough的名词复数 )
  • The green boughs glittered with all their pearls of dew. 绿枝上闪烁着露珠的光彩。
  • A breeze sighed in the higher boughs. 微风在高高的树枝上叹息着。
12 expiate qPOzO     
  • He tried to expiate his crimes by giving money to the church.他以捐款给教会来赎罪。
  • It seemed that Alice was expiating her father's sins with her charity work.似乎艾丽斯正在通过自己的慈善工作来弥补父亲的罪过。
13 encompassing d3e1478f9dbf972fd2599732510b1379     
v.围绕( encompass的现在分词 );包围;包含;包括
  • Being too large and all-encompassing is a common defect among state-owned enterprises. 过分追求大而全,是国企的一大通病。 来自互联网
  • Our services are: all-encompassing, love justice and high quality. 我们的服务目标是:全方位、真情义、高质量。 来自互联网
14 celestial 4rUz8     
  • The rosy light yet beamed like a celestial dawn.玫瑰色的红光依然象天上的朝霞一样绚丽。
  • Gravity governs the motions of celestial bodies.万有引力控制着天体的运动。
15 applied Tz2zXA     
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
16 fixed JsKzzj     
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
17 dread Ekpz8     
  • We all dread to think what will happen if the company closes.我们都不敢去想一旦公司关门我们该怎么办。
  • Her heart was relieved of its blankest dread.她极度恐惧的心理消除了。
18 incensed 0qizaV     
  • The decision incensed the workforce. 这个决定激怒了劳工大众。
  • They were incensed at the decision. 他们被这个决定激怒了。
19 incense dcLzU     
  • This proposal will incense conservation campaigners.这项提议会激怒环保人士。
  • In summer,they usually burn some coil incense to keep away the mosquitoes.夏天他们通常点香驱蚊。
20 conceit raVyy     
  • As conceit makes one lag behind,so modesty helps one make progress.骄傲使人落后,谦虚使人进步。
  • She seems to be eaten up with her own conceit.她仿佛已经被骄傲冲昏了头脑。
21 thereby Sokwv     
  • I have never been to that city,,ereby I don't know much about it.我从未去过那座城市,因此对它不怎么熟悉。
  • He became a British citizen,thereby gaining the right to vote.他成了英国公民,因而得到了投票权。
22 impure NyByW     
  • The air of a big city is often impure.大城市的空气往往是污浊的。
  • Impure drinking water is a cause of disease.不洁的饮用水是引发疾病的一个原因。
23 deities f904c4643685e6b83183b1154e6a97c2     
n.神,女神( deity的名词复数 );神祗;神灵;神明
  • Zeus and Aphrodite were ancient Greek deities. 宙斯和阿佛洛狄是古希腊的神。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Taoist Wang hesitated occasionally about these transactions for fearof offending the deities. 道士也有过犹豫,怕这样会得罪了神。 来自汉英文学 - 现代散文
24 impurities 2626a6dbfe6f229f6e1c36f702812675     
不纯( impurity的名词复数 ); 不洁; 淫秽; 杂质
  • A filter will remove most impurities found in water. 过滤器会滤掉水中的大部分杂质。
  • Oil is refined to remove naturally occurring impurities. 油经过提炼去除天然存在的杂质。
25 standing 2hCzgo     
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
26 derived 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2     
vi.起源;由来;衍生;导出v.得到( derive的过去式和过去分词 );(从…中)得到获得;源于;(从…中)提取
  • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英语很多词源出于拉丁文和希腊文。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他对文学的爱好是受他父亲的影响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
27 expiation a80c49513e840be0ae3a8e585f1f2d7e     
  • 'served him right,'said Drouet afterward, even in view of her keen expiation of her error. “那是他活该,"这一场结束时杜洛埃说,尽管那个妻子已竭力要赎前愆。 来自英汉文学 - 嘉莉妹妹
  • Jesus made expiation for our sins on the cross. 耶稣在十字架上为我们赎了罪。 来自互联网
28 celebrated iwLzpz     
  • He was soon one of the most celebrated young painters in England.不久他就成了英格兰最负盛名的年轻画家之一。
  • The celebrated violinist was mobbed by the audience.观众团团围住了这位著名的小提琴演奏家。
29 cleansing cleansing     
n. 净化(垃圾) adj. 清洁用的 动词cleanse的现在分词
  • medicated cleansing pads for sensitive skin 敏感皮肤药物清洗棉
  • Soap is not the only cleansing agent. 肥皂并不是唯一的清洁剂。
30 distinguished wu9z3v     
  • Elephants are distinguished from other animals by their long noses.大象以其长长的鼻子显示出与其他动物的不同。
  • A banquet was given in honor of the distinguished guests.宴会是为了向贵宾们致敬而举行的。
31 accomplished UzwztZ     
  • Thanks to your help,we accomplished the task ahead of schedule.亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
  • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator.通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
32 aspersion 0N0yY     
  • Carrie felt this to contain,in some way,an aspersion upon her ability.嘉莉觉得这话多少含有贬低她的才能的意思。
  • Should you hear my name blackened and maligned,will you credit the aspersion?要是你听见我的名誉受到诽谤,你会相信那谗言吗?
33 virtue BpqyH     
  • He was considered to be a paragon of virtue.他被认为是品德尽善尽美的典范。
  • You need to decorate your mind with virtue.你应该用德行美化心灵。
34 disposition GljzO     
  • He has made a good disposition of his property.他已对财产作了妥善处理。
  • He has a cheerful disposition.他性情开朗。
35 forth Hzdz2     
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
36 sneer YFdzu     
  • He said with a sneer.他的话中带有嘲笑之意。
  • You may sneer,but a lot of people like this kind of music.你可以嗤之以鼻,但很多人喜欢这种音乐。
37 wretch EIPyl     
  • You are really an ungrateful wretch to complain instead of thanking him.你不但不谢他,还埋怨他,真不知好歹。
  • The dead husband is not the dishonoured wretch they fancied him.死去的丈夫不是他们所想象的不光彩的坏蛋。
38 profane l1NzQ     
  • He doesn't dare to profane the name of God.他不敢亵渎上帝之名。
  • His profane language annoyed us.他亵渎的言语激怒了我们。
39 herald qdCzd     
  • In England, the cuckoo is the herald of spring.在英国杜鹃鸟是报春的使者。
  • Dawn is the herald of day.曙光是白昼的先驱。
40 possessed xuyyQ     
  • He flew out of the room like a man possessed.他像着了魔似地猛然冲出房门。
  • He behaved like someone possessed.他行为举止像是魔怔了。
41 corpse JYiz4     
  • What she saw was just an unfeeling corpse.她见到的只是一具全无感觉的尸体。
  • The corpse was preserved from decay by embalming.尸体用香料涂抹以防腐烂。
42 conjugal Ravys     
  • Conjugal visits are banned,so marriages break down.配偶访问是禁止的,罪犯的婚姻也因此破裂。
  • Conjugal fate is something delicate.缘分,其实是一种微妙的东西。
43 satirizes fab63db34313b119df175df4b569c121     
v.讽刺,讥讽( satirize的第三人称单数 )
  • This detestable custom satirizes humanity. 这个可厌的风俗违反人性。 来自辞典例句
  • This idiom satirizes those who instead of taking changed circumstances account. “刻舟求剑”这个成语讽刺那些办事迂腐,不知道变通情况的人。 来自互联网
44 esteems 138f71eda3452b1a346a3b078c123d2e     
n.尊敬,好评( esteem的名词复数 )v.尊敬( esteem的第三人称单数 );敬重;认为;以为
  • No one esteems your father more than I do. 没有人比我更敬重你的父亲了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Fourth, esteems and the attention specially to the Marxism theory absorption. 第四,特别推崇和关注对马克思主义学说的吸收。 来自互联网
45 guilt 9e6xr     
  • She tried to cover up her guilt by lying.她企图用谎言掩饰自己的罪行。
  • Don't lay a guilt trip on your child about schoolwork.别因为功课责备孩子而使他觉得很内疚。
46 gore gevzd     
  • The fox lay dying in a pool of gore.狐狸倒在血泊中奄奄一息。
  • Carruthers had been gored by a rhinoceros.卡拉瑟斯被犀牛顶伤了。
47 fiery ElEye     
  • She has fiery red hair.她有一头火红的头发。
  • His fiery speech agitated the crowd.他热情洋溢的讲话激动了群众。
48 yoked 3cf9b4d6cb0a697dfb2940ae671ca4f2     
  • The farmer yoked the oxen. 那个农夫给牛加上轭。
  • He was yoked to an disinclined partner. 他不得不与一位不情愿的伙伴合作。
49 credulous Oacy2     
  • You must be credulous if she fooled you with that story.连她那种话都能把你骗倒,你一定是太容易相信别人了。
  • Credulous attitude will only make you take anything for granted.轻信的态度只会使你想当然。
50 supplication supplication     
  • She knelt in supplication. 她跪地祷求。
  • The supplication touched him home. 这个请求深深地打动了他。 来自英汉文学 - 双城记
51 horrid arozZj     
  • I'm not going to the horrid dinner party.我不打算去参加这次讨厌的宴会。
  • The medicine is horrid and she couldn't get it down.这种药很难吃,她咽不下去。
52 corrupting e31caa462603f9a59dd15b756f3d82a9     
(使)败坏( corrupt的现在分词 ); (使)腐化; 引起(计算机文件等的)错误; 破坏
  • It would be corrupting discipline to leave him unpunished. 不惩治他会败坏风纪。
  • It would be corrupting military discipline to leave him unpunished. 不惩治他会败坏军纪。
53 embodied 12aaccf12ed540b26a8c02d23d463865     
v.表现( embody的过去式和过去分词 );象征;包括;包含
  • a politician who embodied the hopes of black youth 代表黑人青年希望的政治家
  • The heroic deeds of him embodied the glorious tradition of the troops. 他的英雄事迹体现了军队的光荣传统。 来自《简明英汉词典》
54 initiation oqSzAI     
  • her initiation into the world of marketing 她的初次涉足营销界
  • It was my initiation into the world of high fashion. 这是我初次涉足高级时装界。
55 initiated 9cd5622f36ab9090359c3cf3ca4ddda3     
n. 创始人 adj. 新加入的 vt. 开始,创始,启蒙,介绍加入
  • He has not yet been thoroughly initiated into the mysteries of computers. 他对计算机的奥秘尚未入门。
  • The artist initiated the girl into the art world in France. 这个艺术家介绍这个女孩加入巴黎艺术界。
56 prudent M0Yzg     
  • A prudent traveller never disparages his own country.聪明的旅行者从不贬低自己的国家。
  • You must school yourself to be modest and prudent.你要学会谦虚谨慎。
57 confession 8Ygye     
  • Her confession was simply tantamount to a casual explanation.她的自白简直等于一篇即席说明。
  • The police used torture to extort a confession from him.警察对他用刑逼供。
58 varied giIw9     
  • The forms of art are many and varied.艺术的形式是多种多样的。
  • The hotel has a varied programme of nightly entertainment.宾馆有各种晚间娱乐活动。
59 abstain SVUzq     
  • His doctor ordered him to abstain from beer and wine.他的医生嘱咐他戒酒。
  • Three Conservative MPs abstained in the vote.三位保守党下院议员投了弃权票。
60 interval 85kxY     
  • The interval between the two trees measures 40 feet.这两棵树的间隔是40英尺。
  • There was a long interval before he anwsered the telephone.隔了好久他才回了电话。
61 enacted b0a10ad8fca50ba4217bccb35bc0f2a1     
制定(法律),通过(法案)( enact的过去式和过去分词 )
  • legislation enacted by parliament 由议会通过的法律
  • Outside in the little lobby another scene was begin enacted. 外面的小休息室里又是另一番景象。 来自英汉文学 - 嘉莉妹妹
62 symbolized 789161b92774c43aefa7cbb79126c6c6     
v.象征,作为…的象征( symbolize的过去式和过去分词 )
  • For Tigress, Joy symbolized the best a woman could expect from life. 在她看,小福子就足代表女人所应有的享受。 来自汉英文学 - 骆驼祥子
  • A car symbolized distinction and achievement, and he was proud. 汽车象征着荣誉和成功,所以他很自豪。 来自辞典例句
63 meditated b9ec4fbda181d662ff4d16ad25198422     
深思,沉思,冥想( meditate的过去式和过去分词 ); 内心策划,考虑
  • He meditated for two days before giving his answer. 他在作出答复之前考虑了两天。
  • She meditated for 2 days before giving her answer. 她考虑了两天才答复。
64 inevitable 5xcyq     
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.玛丽戴着她总是戴的那顶大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.战败对英国政策不可避免地产生了影响。
65 imposing 8q9zcB     
  • The fortress is an imposing building.这座城堡是一座宏伟的建筑。
  • He has lost his imposing appearance.他已失去堂堂仪表。
66 doctrines 640cf8a59933d263237ff3d9e5a0f12e     
n.教条( doctrine的名词复数 );教义;学说;(政府政策的)正式声明
  • To modern eyes, such doctrines appear harsh, even cruel. 从现代的角度看,这样的教义显得苛刻,甚至残酷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • His doctrines have seduced many into error. 他的学说把许多人诱入歧途。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
67 doctrine Pkszt     
  • He was impelled to proclaim his doctrine.他不得不宣扬他的教义。
  • The council met to consider changes to doctrine.宗教议会开会考虑更改教义。
68 testament yyEzf     
  • This is his last will and testament.这是他的遗愿和遗嘱。
  • It is a testament to the power of political mythology.这说明,编造政治神话可以产生多大的威力。
69 controversy 6Z9y0     
  • That is a fact beyond controversy.那是一个无可争论的事实。
  • We ran the risk of becoming the butt of every controversy.我们要冒使自己在所有的纷争中都成为众矢之的的风险。
70 deferred 43fff3df3fc0b3417c86dc3040fb2d86     
adj.延期的,缓召的v.拖延,延缓,推迟( defer的过去式和过去分词 );服从某人的意愿,遵从
  • The department deferred the decision for six months. 这个部门推迟了六个月才作决定。
  • a tax-deferred savings plan 延税储蓄计划
71 entrusted be9f0db83b06252a0a462773113f94fa     
v.委托,托付( entrust的过去式和过去分词 )
  • He entrusted the task to his nephew. 他把这任务托付给了他的侄儿。
  • She was entrusted with the direction of the project. 她受委托负责这项计划。 来自《简明英汉词典》
72 remains 1kMzTy     
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
73 abridge XIUyG     
  • They are going to abridge that dictionary.他们将要精简那本字典。
  • He decided to abridge his stay here after he received a letter from home.他接到家信后决定缩短在这里的逗留时间。
74 psalms 47aac1d82cedae7c6a543a2c9a72b9db     
n.赞美诗( psalm的名词复数 );圣诗;圣歌;(中的)
  • the Book of Psalms 《〈圣经〉诗篇》
  • A verse from Psalms knifed into Pug's mind: "put not your trust in princes." 《诗篇》里有一句话闪过帕格的脑海:“不要相信王侯。” 来自辞典例句
75 kindled d35b7382b991feaaaa3e8ddbbcca9c46     
(使某物)燃烧,着火( kindle的过去式和过去分词 ); 激起(感情等); 发亮,放光
  • We watched as the fire slowly kindled. 我们看着火慢慢地燃烧起来。
  • The teacher's praise kindled a spark of hope inside her. 老师的赞扬激起了她内心的希望。
76 chalice KX4zj     
  • He inherited a poisoned chalice when he took over the job as union leader.他接手工会领导职务,看似风光,实则会给他带来很多麻烦。
  • She was essentially feminine,in other words,a parasite and a chalice.她在本质上是个女人,换句话说,是一个食客和一只酒杯。
77 symbolical nrqwT     
  • The power of the monarchy in Britain today is more symbolical than real. 今日英国君主的权力多为象徵性的,无甚实际意义。
  • The Lord introduces the first symbolical language in Revelation. 主说明了启示录中第一个象徵的语言。
78 economize Sr3xZ     
  • We're going to have to economize from now on. 从现在开始,我们不得不节约开支。
  • We have to economize on water during the dry season. 我们在旱季不得不节约用水。
79 fortify sgezZ     
  • This country will fortify the coastal areas.该国将加强沿海地区的防御。
  • This treaty forbade the United States to fortify the canal.此条约禁止美国对运河设防。
80 bishop AtNzd     
  • He was a bishop who was held in reverence by all.他是一位被大家都尊敬的主教。
  • Two years after his death the bishop was canonised.主教逝世两年后被正式封为圣者。
81 corrupted 88ed91fad91b8b69b62ce17ae542ff45     
(使)败坏( corrupt的过去式和过去分词 ); (使)腐化; 引起(计算机文件等的)错误; 破坏
  • The body corrupted quite quickly. 尸体很快腐烂了。
  • The text was corrupted by careless copyists. 原文因抄写员粗心而有讹误。
82 saliva 6Cdz0     
  • He wiped a dribble of saliva from his chin.他擦掉了下巴上的几滴口水。
  • Saliva dribbled from the baby's mouth.唾液从婴儿的嘴里流了出来。
83 talisman PIizs     
  • It was like a talisman worn in bosom.它就象佩在胸前的护身符一样。
  • Dress was the one unfailling talisman and charm used for keeping all things in their places.冠是当作保持品位和秩序的一种万应灵符。
84 rev njvzwS     
  • It's his job to rev up the audience before the show starts.他要负责在表演开始前鼓动观众的热情。
  • Don't rev the engine so hard.别让发动机转得太快。
85 venom qLqzr     
  • The snake injects the venom immediately after biting its prey.毒蛇咬住猎物之后马上注入毒液。
  • In fact,some components of the venom may benefit human health.事实上,毒液的某些成分可能有益于人类健康。
86 toads 848d4ebf1875eac88fe0765c59ce57d1     
n.蟾蜍,癞蛤蟆( toad的名词复数 )
  • All toads blink when they swallow. 所有的癞蛤蟆吞食东西时都会眨眼皮。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Toads have shorter legs and are generally more clumsy than frogs. 蟾蜍比青蛙脚短,一般说来没有青蛙灵活。 来自辞典例句
87 disarmed f147d778a788fe8e4bf22a9bdb60a8ba     
v.裁军( disarm的过去式和过去分词 );使息怒
  • Most of the rebels were captured and disarmed. 大部分叛乱分子被俘获并解除了武装。
  • The swordsman disarmed his opponent and ran him through. 剑客缴了对手的械,并对其乱刺一气。 来自《简明英汉词典》
88 testimony zpbwO     
  • The testimony given by him is dubious.他所作的证据是可疑的。
  • He was called in to bear testimony to what the police officer said.他被传入为警官所说的话作证。
89 naturalist QFKxZ     
  • He was a printer by trade and naturalist by avocation.他从事印刷业,同时是个博物学爱好者。
  • The naturalist told us many stories about birds.博物学家给我们讲述了许多有关鸟儿的故事。
90 remarkable 8Vbx6     
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
91 superstition VHbzg     
  • It's a common superstition that black cats are unlucky.认为黑猫不吉祥是一种很普遍的迷信。
  • Superstition results from ignorance.迷信产生于无知。
92 superstitions bf6d10d6085a510f371db29a9b4f8c2f     
迷信,迷信行为( superstition的名词复数 )
  • Old superstitions seem incredible to educated people. 旧的迷信对于受过教育的人来说是不可思议的。
  • Do away with all fetishes and superstitions. 破除一切盲目崇拜和迷信。
93 ridicule fCwzv     
  • You mustn't ridicule unfortunate people.你不该嘲笑不幸的人。
  • Silly mistakes and queer clothes often arouse ridicule.荒谬的错误和古怪的服装常会引起人们的讪笑。
94 stanza RFoyc     
  • We omitted to sing the second stanza.我们漏唱了第二节。
  • One young reporter wrote a review with a stanza that contained some offensive content.一个年轻的记者就歌词中包含有攻击性内容的一节写了评论。
95 superstitious BHEzf     
  • They aim to deliver the people who are in bondage to superstitious belief.他们的目的在于解脱那些受迷信束缚的人。
  • These superstitious practices should be abolished as soon as possible.这些迷信做法应尽早取消。
96 lore Y0YxW     
  • I will seek and question him of his lore.我倒要找上他,向他讨教他的渊博的学问。
  • Early peoples passed on plant and animal lore through legend.早期人类通过传说传递有关植物和动物的知识。
97 enumerates 0aada8697216bd4d68069c8de295e8b1     
v.列举,枚举,数( enumerate的第三人称单数 )
  • Enumerates the transaction options when sending or receiving a message. 发送或接收消息时,枚举事务处理选项。 来自互联网
  • Ming as Researcher enumerates research projects conducted and those in progress. [潘氏研究]举曾经进行﹐及现在进行的研究计划。 来自互联网
98 preservative EQFxr     
  • New timber should be treated with a preservative.新采的圆木应进行防腐处理。
  • Salt is a common food preservative.盐是一种常用的食物防腐剂。
99 repel 1BHzf     
  • A country must have the will to repel any invader.一个国家得有决心击退任何入侵者。
  • Particles with similar electric charges repel each other.电荷同性的分子互相排斥。
100 contagion 9ZNyl     
  • A contagion of fear swept through the crowd.一种恐惧感在人群中迅速蔓延开。
  • The product contagion effect has numerous implications for marketing managers and retailers.产品传染效应对市场营销管理者和零售商都有很多的启示。
101 fascinations 1b7d9606a26a4699835243f7a1d0b55d     
n.魅力( fascination的名词复数 );有魅力的东西;迷恋;陶醉
  • The fascinations of the circus are endless. 马戏表演非常吸引人。 来自辞典例句
  • He held the children spellbound with magic tricks and other fascinations. 他使那些孩子沉浸在魔术和其他魅力中。 来自互联网
102 presages 4ea00ada107e90bad30d10cbfebaf0aa     
v.预示,预兆( presage的第三人称单数 )
  • This sign presages rains. 这种迹象是下雨的预兆。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • And each presages the bigger pivots ahead in China's course. 每一件也都预示着中国今后路线的更大转机。 来自互联网
103 lame r9gzj     
  • The lame man needs a stick when he walks.那跛脚男子走路时需借助拐棍。
  • I don't believe his story.It'sounds a bit lame.我不信他讲的那一套。他的话听起来有些靠不住。
104 presumptuous 6Q3xk     
  • It would be presumptuous for anybody to offer such a view.任何人提出这种观点都是太放肆了。
  • It was presumptuous of him to take charge.他自拿主张,太放肆了。
105 conjure tnRyN     
  • I conjure you not to betray me.我恳求你不要背弃我。
  • I can't simply conjure up the money out of thin air.我是不能像变魔术似的把钱变来。
106 malady awjyo     
  • There is no specific remedy for the malady.没有医治这种病的特效药。
  • They are managing to control the malady into a small range.他们设法将疾病控制在小范围之内。
107 repents dd3f47bdd34b670ec981917ff8c73f04     
对(自己的所为)感到懊悔或忏悔( repent的第三人称单数 )
  • God welcomes the sinner who repents. 上帝欢迎悔过的罪人。
  • He repents him of the evil. 他对罪恶感到后悔。
108 inflicted cd6137b3bb7ad543500a72a112c6680f     
把…强加给,使承受,遭受( inflict的过去式和过去分词 )
  • They inflicted a humiliating defeat on the home team. 他们使主队吃了一场很没面子的败仗。
  • Zoya heroically bore the torture that the Fascists inflicted upon her. 卓娅英勇地承受法西斯匪徒加在她身上的酷刑。
109 resentment 4sgyv     
  • All her feelings of resentment just came pouring out.她一股脑儿倾吐出所有的怨恨。
  • She cherished a deep resentment under the rose towards her employer.她暗中对她的雇主怀恨在心。
110 alleviated a4745257ebd55707de96128297f486e1     
减轻,缓解,缓和( alleviate的过去式和过去分词 )
  • It is always completely alleviated by total gastrectomy. 全胃切除永远完全缓解症状。
  • Toxicity problem in manufacturing and storage might be alleviated by coating beryllium with aluminum. 但如果用铝包覆铍,则可避免加工过程中及储存期间的中毒问题。
111 lichens 8ba13422ddec8ecf73fb1d0cb20f495f     
n.地衣( lichen的名词复数 )
  • The only plants to be found in Antarctica are algae, mosses, and lichens. 在南极洲所发现的植物只有藻类、苔藓和地衣。 来自辞典例句
  • Litmus: Mixture of coloured organic compounds obtained from several species of lichens. 石蕊:从几种地衣类植物中获取的带色有机化合物的混合物。 来自互联网
112 incurred a782097e79bccb0f289640bab05f0f6c     
[医]招致的,遭受的; incur的过去式
  • She had incurred the wrath of her father by marrying without his consent 她未经父亲同意就结婚,使父亲震怒。
  • We will reimburse any expenses incurred. 我们将付还所有相关费用。
113 peril l3Dz6     
  • The refugees were in peril of death from hunger.难民有饿死的危险。
  • The embankment is in great peril.河堤岌岌可危。
114 virtues cd5228c842b227ac02d36dd986c5cd53     
美德( virtue的名词复数 ); 德行; 优点; 长处
  • Doctors often extol the virtues of eating less fat. 医生常常宣扬少吃脂肪的好处。
  • She delivered a homily on the virtues of family life. 她进行了一场家庭生活美德方面的说教。
115 asunder GVkzU     
  • The curtains had been drawn asunder.窗帘被拉向两边。
  • Your conscience,conviction,integrity,and loyalties were torn asunder.你的良心、信念、正直和忠诚都被扯得粉碎了。
116 numbness BmTzzc     
  • She was fighting off the numbness of frostbite. 她在竭力摆脱冻僵的感觉。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Sometimes they stay dead, causing' only numbness. 有时,它们没有任何反应,只会造成麻木。 来自时文部分
117 touching sg6zQ9     
  • It was a touching sight.这是一幅动人的景象。
  • His letter was touching.他的信很感人。
118 eyelid zlcxj     
  • She lifted one eyelid to see what he was doing.她抬起一只眼皮看看他在做什么。
  • My eyelid has been tumid since yesterday.从昨天起,我的眼皮就肿了。
119 guardianship ab24b083713a2924f6878c094b49d632     
n. 监护, 保护, 守护
  • They had to employ the English language in face of the jealous guardianship of Britain. 他们不得不在英国疑忌重重的监护下使用英文。
  • You want Marion to set aside her legal guardianship and give you Honoria. 你要马丽恩放弃她的法定监护人资格,把霍诺丽娅交给你。
120 virgins 2d584d81af9df5624db4e51d856706e5     
处女,童男( virgin的名词复数 ); 童贞玛利亚(耶稣之母)
  • They were both virgins when they met and married. 他们从相识到结婚前都未曾经历男女之事。
  • Men want virgins as concubines. 人家买姨太太的要整货。 来自汉英文学 - 骆驼祥子


©英文小说网 2005-2010

有任何问题,请给我们留言,管理员邮箱:tinglishi@gmail.com  站长QQ :点击发送消息和我们联系56065533