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首页 » 英文宗教小说 » Paganism Surviving in Christianity » CHAPTER XIV. FIVE CONCLUSIONS.
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Protestants must Accept the Bible in Fact, as well as in Theory, or be Overthrown—The Bible must be Reinterpreted in the Light of “Higher Criticism” and Deeper Spiritual Life—The Present Tendencies in Bible Study Mark the Opening of the Second Stage of the Protestant Movement—Baptism must Cease to be the Foot-Ball of Denominational Polemics2 and be Raised to a Question of Obedience3 to the Example of Christ—Protestants must Return to the Sabbath, Christianized by Christ, and to True Sabbathism, Which is as Undenominational as Faith—Such Sabbathism, and God’s Sabbath, must be Restored to the Place from Which Pagan No-Sabbathism and the Pagan Sunday Drove Them—“Sabbath” Legislation is Unchristian—All union of Christianity with the State must Yield before the Normal Development of True Protestantism.

The facts which have been set forth5 in the foregoing pages form the basis for certain important conclusions. Unconsciously perhaps, but not less certainly, the Protestant movement was the beginning of a definite reaction against paganism in Christianity. Since humanity must learn all higher truth through long and sometimes bitter experience, errors and evils must ripen6 before those[283] who have once accepted them will let them go. All great upward movements illustrate7 this fact. Reformatory action begins when error reaches so low a point that the best interests involved are confronted with strangulation and destruction. When the slow-beating heart threatens the death of the sleeping patient, nature arouses all her forces in a final struggle for life. Thus truth, stifled8 and trodden under foot by the pagan elements in the Church, awoke for the final struggle as the morning began to dawn, after the ages of midnight.
(1) Reinstatement of the Bible.

As the first step in perverting9 Christianity was to set aside the authority of God’s book, and to teach error for truth through false exegesis10, so the first step toward reformation was the unchaining of that Word. Paganized Christianity had placed itself between men and God, and His Word. Faith, hedged and crippled, trusted in human traditions, forms, and ceremonies, and in priestly absolution from sin. Help could not come, neither could hope arise, until the pagan elements should be so far removed that men could stand face to face with the Bible, with Christ, and with God. Hence the central points in the first stage of the reformatory work were an open Bible, an accessible Christ, and a Father whose law was the[284] ultimate appeal, and whose love was the ultimate source of hope and the foundation of faith. The upward movement started on the same plane of fundamental truth on which the downward movement began. Hence the first struggle, under Luther, centred around personal faith.

But it was in the nature of things that men whose inheritance had come from the centuries made dark and religiously corrupt11 through pagan residuum, could not rise above all these influences at once.

Though the leaders in such movements build better than they know, their work is always comparatively imperfect. The intensity12 with which they must pursue a single truth in order to make any progress, prevents them from seeing all truth. This the more, since the public mind, at such times, cannot grasp and hold more than one great truth at a time. The reformers could not wholly free themselves from the idea that “tradition and custom” have authority. They did not actually accept the Bible as the only rule of faith and practice. Protestantism has never done this. As between Protestantism and Romanism, from which it revolted, there can be no middle or common ground. The Roman Catholic claims that the Church made the Bible, and formulated13 authoritative14 traditions, and hence that the Church,[285] as law-maker and interpreter of the Bible, is the supreme15 authority. The Protestant begins by denying the authority of the Church, and appealing to the Bible as the ultimate authority. Logic16 and history combine to declare that Protestantism must make its theory good, or fail. Hence we draw

Conclusion First.

Protestantism must fully17 accept the Bible as the ultimate and only standard of faith and practice, or it must be broken between the upper millstone of Roman Catholicism and the nether18 millstone of irreligious rationalism.

The years are ripe for decision. The backward drift toward Roman Catholicism and rationalism has well set in. The loss already sustained by Protestantism, though an incomplete movement, can be regained19 only by prompt and vigorous action.

These conclusions relative to the future of Protestantism, having been published in a magazine edited by the author of this book, The Sabbath Outlook, were commented upon by the Catholic Mirror, Baltimore, under date of March 19, 1892, as follows:


“Will ‘Scriptural Simplicity’ Save Protestantism?”

“This development of Christianity—assumed to be pagan and, therefore, corrupt—is naturally cause of much anxiety to Christian4 people who so regard it. We have said a few words to show how groundless is this concern. But the power and extent of the development gives most trouble. It is seen that the Catholic Church holds the key to the present position; and so Christians21 are warned that they must return to ‘the simple truths of the New Testament22,’ if they would not yield to the development. One of these people, a clear-headed, consistent Protestant, commenting upon Harnack’s researches, boldly proclaims: ‘Protestantism must go back of these Gnostic speculations23 and rebuild Christian faith and practice on the New Testament records of the first century, or remain hopelessly weak in its efforts to overcome the tide of Roman Catholic influence and history.’ He adds: ‘This is a vital truth which Protestantism must recognize and act upon promptly24, or the next century will witness its crushing defeat between the forces of Roman Catholicism, Irreligious Rationalism, and Worldliness.’

“There is a striking admission in this note of alarm. ‘Roman Catholic influence and history’ is the tide setting in with overwhelming power. The warning is clear and strong. There is no uncertain sound.

“It goes without saying that we can have no pleasure (God forbid!), but only sadness in imagining the ‘crushing defeat’ of our Christian brethren by ‘irreligious rationalism’ or ‘worldliness.’ We will not apply the term ‘defeat’ to their being brought to see the truth and submit themselves to the Catholic Church. We are[287] wondering just now whether there is any practical good in the warning given them; whether it is at all likely that Protestantism will ever go back to what are called ‘the simple truths of the New Testament.’ We don’t believe it will, or can.

“When it is considered what the Protestantism of to-day is,—how much it has learned of the Church idea,—the Catholic idea,—it may be seen how useless it is to expect any such thing. To begin with, all or the immense majority of Protestants, in the simple matter of accepting the change from the Sabbath to the Sunday—from the last to the first day of the week,—quietly admit an extra-scriptural authority, the authority of the Church. Chillingworth’s famous maxim25, ‘The Bible only, the religion of Protestants,’ leaves this item at least out of the calculation. All unwittingly our separated brethren are here acting26 upon a Catholic principle, which does not deny or do away Scripture27, but makes the Rule of Faith to consist of Scripture and—something else—even Tradition; and by this principle the ever-living voice of the Church speaks with an authority always equal to that of the written revelation, and sometimes apparently28 transcending29 it.”

The issue is not one of mere30 name, or of denominationalism, or of “Church” against “sects.” It is, as said above, a question of the reinstatement of the Bible as the supreme rule of Protestant Christianity. The Protestant movement began in that issue. There can be no Protestantism outside of it. If it be not true, Protestantism is a[288] failure. If it be true, Protestantism cannot remain where it is and survive. If it be not true, Romanism has the logical and historical right to the field. It is master of the situation, and its expectation that erring31 Protestants will return to “The Mother Church,” or wander hopelessly away from Christianity, will be realized in less time than Protestantism has already existed. These facts challenge the attention of all parties. They sound the same key as do the words of Professor Harnack, spoken in July, 1889. I said to him: “Will the Protestantism of the next century be more spiritual than now, or less?” He answered, “It will be more spiritual, or it will die.” I continued: “If it dies, what will be the next scene in church history?” He said: “Roman Catholicism will take possession of the world as a new form of paganism.” These are not the words of an alarmist, nor a sectarian polemist; they are the legitimate32 deductions33 made by a careful student of universal history. Will you ponder them?
(2) Biblical Interpretation34; Higher Criticism.

Whoever has read the chapters on gnosticism, and the allegorical method of interpreting the Bible, and has traced the influence of these pagan elements upon the history of biblical interpretation, cannot fail to see God’s guiding hand in the movements[289] of the last half of this century. The revival35 of Bible study, the development of the “International Lessons,” the call for something yet better, and the growth of exegetical36 literature form an epoch37 not less important, though less noisy, because less political, than the rise of Lutheranism, the development of Calvinism, or the birth of the English Reformation. The last half of this century has witnessed what no other century ever saw, the beginning of a systematic38 study of the Bible by the people. Such an epoch could not do less than create the “higher criticism.” That phase of this Bible-study epoch is as legitimate a result as the “Diet at Worms” was of Luther’s revolt, or as Puritanism was of the English Reformation. Therefore:

Conclusion Second.

Biblical study and biblical interpretation, including “Higher Criticism,” are ushering39 in the second great feature of the Protestant movement.

Luther and his coadjutors unchained the Bible and opened its pages. They did not, could not, eliminate traditional authority and influence from its exegesis. Traditionalism was largely pagan. It had held sway for centuries, and is yet regnant in many ways. All past exegesis needs retrial in the fires of a devout40 criticism. That criticism must[290] introduce Christ’s norm,—“By their fruits ye shall know them.” Pour exegetical and theological traditionalism into that crucible41. Heat it in the fires of the best and most devout scholarship. Let brave hearts and careful hands take away the dross42, fearless as to consequences. The Bible and Protestantism are both on trial in the closing years of the nineteenth century. There need be no fear as to final results if Protestants are true and firm. If they are not, the closing years of the twentieth century will sit in sackcloth at the open grave of a Christianity which began the elimination43 of paganism well, but had not the bravery, and therefore the strength, to finish the work.
(3) Concerning Baptism.

The paramount44 question touching45 the residuum which came in from pagan water-worship does not lie primarily in the mode of baptism; although historically, logically, and symbolically46 there were no modes of baptism until they were brought in by paganism. Paganism immersed, affused, sprinkled. It immersed once, or three times. In the use of holy water it sprinkled repeatedly and indefinitely. According to the New Testament, baptism is submersion, as the symbol of death to sin and resurrection to righteousness. All beyond that was pagan-born.


The central point of the evil which came from pagan water-worship is found in “baptismal regeneration”; i. e., the idea that by virtue47 of the power and sacredness of water spiritual purity is produced, and the candidate is fitted for membership in the Church, and for heaven. In so far as this idea remains48, paganism remains. The most prominent examples of this residuum which now survive are found in the use of “holy water,” in the theory that an unconscious infant to which water has been applied49 as a religious ceremony, is thereby50 made a member of the organic church, and its future salvation51 thus assured; in the idea, still held by some, that “regeneration” takes place only in connection with immersion52; and in the general idea that baptism is a “saving ordinance53.”

Conclusion Third.

The core of the question of baptism, as of salvation through faith, is obedience, conformity54 to the example of Christ; hence it does not follow that he who remains unbaptized, when thus remaining does not involve the spirit of disobedience and neglect, may not enter the kingdom of heaven.
(4) Sabbathism.

The Sabbath question is not merely “one of days.” The fundamental conception centres around[292] the fact that God must come to men in sacred time. Eternity55 is an attribute of God, and the measured portion we call “time” is the point where God and man come together as Creator and created. It is here that we “live in Him.” Scriptural and extra-scriptural history show that man has always felt the need of communion with God, through sacred time, and that God has always sought to meet this want. Physical rest is not the primary idea of the Sabbath. It is only a means to higher ends, namely, communion with God, religious culture, and spiritual development. But since time is also the essence of human existence, so far as activities and duties are concerned, and since the use men make of time determines the character of each human life, specific sacred time which shall represent God, and draw men to Him, becomes an essential part of God’s moral and religious government for man. The Sabbath finds its origin in God’s desire and purpose to aid and culture men in holiness, and in man’s need of God, and spiritual communion. Incidentally, and subordinately, the Sabbath is also a physical blessing56 to man. But its primal57, central thought is religious, and the physical good depends largely on the motive58 for resting. The Fourth Commandment embodies59 these deeper principles, and is God’s law concerning the Sabbath. The authority of the law is found in the reasons and necessities which lie back of it.


The Jews had never attained60, or had lost sight of this higher law of the Sabbath, and had reduced its observance to unmeaning formalities and useless burdens. Christ brushed all these away, and glorified61 and established the Sabbath, enlarging and making it a blessing instead of a bondage62. He taught His followers63 how to consider and observe it, by His example and His words.

Paganism, filled with anti-Jewish prejudices against the authority of the Old Testament, gave no heed64 to Christ’s teachings concerning the Sabbath, but proclaimed that it was a “Jewish institution with which Christians had nothing to do.” Borne on the waves of this false theory, Sunday, and its associate pagan days, gradually drove the Sabbath out. The Sunday of the Dark Ages, and the “Continental Sunday” of to-day, are the necessary results. So far as paganized Christianity could do it, sabbathism was slain65 and buried. A remnant, the denominational progenitors66 of the present Seventh-day Baptists, refused to accept the pagan theory, and remained true to the Sabbath through all the changes, from the Apostles to the English Reformation. They were not always organized, but they kept the light burning. In that Reformation the Seventh-day Baptists came to the front, demanding a recognition of the authority of the Fourth Commandment, and a return to the observance of the Sabbath. Opposed to them,[294] Roman Catholics and Episcopalians continued to assert that the customs and traditions of the Church formed the highest authority in the matter of Sabbath keeping. Between these two the Puritan party sought a compromise, and invented the theory (first propounded67 by Nicholas Bownde, in 1595 A.D.) that the commandment, being yet binding68, might be transferred to the Sunday. This Puritan compromise has been tested, its fictitious69 sacredness has gone, and much in the present state of the Sunday question is the fruitage of that baseless compromise.

Sunday legislation, which, as we have seen in a former chapter, was pagan in conception and form, has continued, being made a prominent feature of the Puritan theory. At the present writing (1892) strenuous70 efforts are being made in the United States to save the failing fortunes of Sunday by a revival of Sunday laws. If, by any combination of efforts, this can be done, no permanent good will ensue. The verdict of history and the genius of Christ’s kingdom combine to declare that men cannot be made good by act of Parliament, nor be induced to keep any day sacred by the civil law. If the “rest day” alone be exalted72, the result is holidayism, rather than Sabbath keeping. If the enforcement of the Sunday laws is pressed it will result in their repeal73.


Conclusion Fourth.

(a) No day has ever been kept as a Sabbath except under the idea of divine authority.

(b) Everything less than this promotes holidayism.

(c) There is no scriptural and therefore no truly Protestant ground for Sunday observance.

The only alternative is a return to the observance of the Sabbath, the Seventh day, under the law of obedient love, such love as Christ had for the will of His Father; or to go down with the tide of No-Sabbathism, which, checked temporarily by the Puritan compromise, is now rushing on more wildly than before. The issue is at hand, Christian Sabbathism and the Sabbath, or Pagan holidayism and the Sunday. Culminating events demand that choice, and in the ultimate, universal Sabbathism.
(5) Christianity and the State.

Certain superficial investigators74 have claimed that the union of Christianity with the civil power was the outgrowth of the Hebrew theocratic75 idea. The claim is groundless. The theocracy76 was a State within the Church. The pagan theory, applied to Christianity under Constantine and his successors, gave a Church dominated by the State, and regulated, as to polity and faith, by civil law.

History has written some plain and pertinent[296] verdicts concerning the relations which ought to exist between Christianity and the civil power. Every verdict emphasizes the truth of Christ’s words: “My kingdom is not of this world.” The relations between Christianity and the civil power which began under Constantine have worked incalculable harm to Christianity as a spiritual religion. Its political triumph was a most disastrous77 defeat which became a large factor in producing the subsequent centuries of decline and darkness. Better conceptions of civil government, and increasing civilization have improved the status of State Churches since the Reformation; but spiritual Christianity everywhere and always, is calling for “disestablishment.” It is a singular fact that in the United States, where there has been the nearest approach to religious liberty, we are confronted with two phases of religio-civil legislation which are now coalescing78, and which, however well meant, partake more of the spirit of the ninth century than of the nineteenth, or of the New Testament. These movements are “National Reform,” which seeks to Christianize the nation by putting Christ’s name into the National Constitution; and the now popular Sunday-law movement. There are several points aimed at by the National Reform Association, such as divorce, gambling79, etc., which are within the province of[297] the civil law; but its primary aim, to secure legislation on all points covered by the Ten Commandments, is fundamentally pagan in concept and intent. The good men who are pressing the movement think that their theory of government is the true one, and that great good would come if it were adopted. But the verdict of every century since the pagan conception was introduced into Christianity, forbids belief in their scheme as a means of Christianizing the nation.

As to Sunday legislation we have seen that its origin was absolutely pagan, and that it has been destructive of true Sabbathism at all times. If the highest hopes of the present agitators80 could be realized; if the civil law should compel all citizens of the United States to rest on Sunday, every year of such a system would sink the people deeper into the slough81 of No-Sabbathism. The “Continental Sunday” is the product of a No-Sabbath theology, and civil Sunday-laws. The Sunday-law advocates seek the supremacy82 of an unscriptural Sabbathism, linked with Sunday by civil law. This has been fully tried, at a time when men had far more regard for Sunday as a sacred day than they have now. But with all things in its favor, the strength of youth, and the honest ignorance of the masses concerning its true character, the “Puritan Sunday” has returned to its original[298] holidayism, in spite of Church and State combined. It could not do less, even if a fortuitous combination of influences should exalt71 it temporarily again. Religion and conscience are entitled to the protection of the civil law, without regard to creed83 or numbers. If immorality84 is practised in the name of religion, it may be suppressed as immorality. Beyond such protection the State may not go.

Conclusion Fifth.

All union of Church and State, or of Christianity and the State, is pagan-born, and opposed to the genius and purpose of Christ’s kingdom.
Last Words.

Whatever prepossessions or conceptions the reader may have brought to the perusal85 of these pages, he cannot finish them without seeing that much which has come down to us as “Christianity” is so tinctured with paganism that it does not fairly represent what Christ taught. The purity of the earliest Christianity was the source of its wondrous86 conquering power. After it was paganized, and united with the State, it continued to conquer, but by the sword rather than by the spirit of God. It is clear proof of the divine character[299] of Christianity, that it was not wholly destroyed by its contact with paganism. It is surpassing proof of that same divine origin, that it could rise from the grave of the Dark Ages, with such vigor20 as produced the Reformation, and has carried that work to the point already gained. But in the crises that await it, in the solving of the problems which confront it, Protestant Christianity must realize that its specific mission is to complete the work of eliminating the pagan residuum, a work well begun by the Reformers, but which must be carried on to higher victories, or sink back to lower defeats. When the last stain of paganism is removed, the world will see a Christianity which will be primarily a life of purity, through love for God and truth and men, rather than a creed, embodying87 speculations about the unknowable and abstractions concerning the unsolvable. In such a Christianity, the Bible plainly interpreted, without allegory or assumption, and in the light of its own history, will hold the first place. The Sabbath, as God’s day, free from burdensome formalism, and filled with good works and spiritual culture, will be restored; and this recognition of it as God’s ever-recurring representative in human life will do much to bring in that universal Sabbathism towards which God is patiently leading his truth-loving children. The pagan[300] Sunday, with its false claims, will be a thing of the past. Baptism as the symbol of entrance to Christ’s kingdom, through spiritual life and faith in Him, will be no longer the foot-ball of polemic1 strife88, nor the many-formed image of pagan water-worship, nor the creator of a false standard of Church membership through “baptismal regeneration.” In that better day, the civil law will give all religion full protection and full freedom, without regard to majorities or creeds89. It will neither oppose by persecution90, nor control under the name of protection. The persecution of Jews in Russia, and useless efforts to make the world holy by act of Parliament, will pass away. To hasten that time, be it far or near, these pages go forth; and he who writes them will be thankful if they bear some part in freeing our holy religion from the poison of pagan residuum, and in giving that higher spiritual life, to the attainment91 of which all forms, ceremonies, times, and agencies ought to bring Christ-loving men.

The End


1 polemic ZBWyr     
  • He launched into a fierce polemic against the government's policies.他猛烈地抨击政府的政策。
  • He wrote a splendid polemic in my favour.他写了一篇出色的文章为我辩护。
2 polemics 6BNyr     
n.辩论术,辩论法;争论( polemic的名词复数 );辩论;辩论术;辩论法
  • He enjoys polemics, persuasion, and controversy. 他喜欢辩论、说服和争议。 来自辞典例句
  • The modes of propaganda are opportunistic and the polemics can be vicious. 宣传的模式是投机取巧的,诡辩是可恶性的。 来自互联网
3 obedience 8vryb     
  • Society has a right to expect obedience of the law.社会有权要求人人遵守法律。
  • Soldiers act in obedience to the orders of their superior officers.士兵们遵照上级军官的命令行动。
4 Christian KVByl     
  • They always addressed each other by their Christian name.他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  • His mother is a sincere Christian.他母亲是个虔诚的基督教徒。
5 forth Hzdz2     
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
6 ripen ph3yq     
  • I'm waiting for the apples to ripen.我正在等待苹果成熟。
  • You can ripen the tomatoes on a sunny windowsill.把西红柿放在有阳光的窗台上可以让它们成熟。
7 illustrate IaRxw     
  • The company's bank statements illustrate its success.这家公司的银行报表说明了它的成功。
  • This diagram will illustrate what I mean.这个图表可说明我的意思。
8 stifled 20d6c5b702a525920b7425fe94ea26a5     
(使)窒息, (使)窒闷( stifle的过去式和过去分词 ); 镇压,遏制; 堵
  • The gas stifled them. 煤气使他们窒息。
  • The rebellion was stifled. 叛乱被镇压了。
9 perverting 443bcb92cd59ba5c36c489ac3b51c4af     
v.滥用( pervert的现在分词 );腐蚀;败坏;使堕落
  • We must never tolerate any taking bribes and perverting justice. 我们决不能姑息贪赃枉法的行为! 来自互联网
  • District Councillor was jailed for three months for vote-planting and perverting the course of justice. 区议员因选举种票及妨碍司法公正被判监三个月。 来自互联网
10 exegesis v77yi     
  • An allegorical exegesis of scripture supported these views.一个寓言圣经注释支持这些观点。
  • Within this context,Fraser is capable of exegesis that goes beyond the obvious.在这一背景下,弗雷泽能够作些富有新意的诠释。
11 corrupt 4zTxn     
  • The newspaper alleged the mayor's corrupt practices.那家报纸断言市长有舞弊行为。
  • This judge is corrupt.这个法官贪污。
12 intensity 45Ixd     
  • I didn't realize the intensity of people's feelings on this issue.我没有意识到这一问题能引起群情激奋。
  • The strike is growing in intensity.罢工日益加剧。
13 formulated cfc86c2c7185ae3f93c4d8a44e3cea3c     
v.构想出( formulate的过去式和过去分词 );规划;确切地阐述;用公式表示
  • He claims that the writer never consciously formulated his own theoretical position. 他声称该作家从未有意识地阐明他自己的理论见解。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • This idea can be formulated in two different ways. 这个意思可以有两种说法。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
14 authoritative 6O3yU     
  • David speaks in an authoritative tone.大卫以命令的口吻说话。
  • Her smile was warm but authoritative.她的笑容很和蔼,同时又透着威严。
15 supreme PHqzc     
  • It was the supreme moment in his life.那是他一生中最重要的时刻。
  • He handed up the indictment to the supreme court.他把起诉书送交最高法院。
16 logic j0HxI     
  • What sort of logic is that?这是什么逻辑?
  • I don't follow the logic of your argument.我不明白你的论点逻辑性何在。
17 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
18 nether P1pyY     
  • This terracotta army well represents his ambition yet to be realized in the nether-world.这一批兵马俑很可能代表他死后也要去实现的雄心。
  • He was escorted back to the nether regions of Main Street.他被护送回中央大道南面的地方。
19 regained 51ada49e953b830c8bd8fddd6bcd03aa     
复得( regain的过去式和过去分词 ); 赢回; 重回; 复至某地
  • The majority of the people in the world have regained their liberty. 世界上大多数人已重获自由。
  • She hesitated briefly but quickly regained her poise. 她犹豫片刻,但很快恢复了镇静。
20 vigor yLHz0     
  • The choir sang the words out with great vigor.合唱团以极大的热情唱出了歌词。
  • She didn't want to be reminded of her beauty or her former vigor.现在,她不愿人们提起她昔日的美丽和以前的精力充沛。
21 Christians 28e6e30f94480962cc721493f76ca6c6     
n.基督教徒( Christian的名词复数 )
  • Christians of all denominations attended the conference. 基督教所有教派的人都出席了这次会议。
  • His novel about Jesus caused a furore among Christians. 他关于耶稣的小说激起了基督教徒的公愤。
22 testament yyEzf     
  • This is his last will and testament.这是他的遗愿和遗嘱。
  • It is a testament to the power of political mythology.这说明,编造政治神话可以产生多大的威力。
23 speculations da17a00acfa088f5ac0adab7a30990eb     
n.投机买卖( speculation的名词复数 );思考;投机活动;推断
  • Your speculations were all quite close to the truth. 你的揣测都很接近于事实。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • This possibility gives rise to interesting speculations. 这种可能性引起了有趣的推测。 来自《用法词典》
24 promptly LRMxm     
  • He paid the money back promptly.他立即还了钱。
  • She promptly seized the opportunity his absence gave her.她立即抓住了因他不在场给她创造的机会。
25 maxim G2KyJ     
  • Please lay the maxim to your heart.请把此格言记在心里。
  • "Waste not,want not" is her favourite maxim.“不浪费则不匮乏”是她喜爱的格言。
26 acting czRzoc     
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
27 scripture WZUx4     
  • The scripture states that God did not want us to be alone.圣经指出上帝并不是想让我们独身一人生活。
  • They invoked Hindu scripture to justify their position.他们援引印度教的经文为他们的立场辩护。
28 apparently tMmyQ     
  • An apparently blind alley leads suddenly into an open space.山穷水尽,豁然开朗。
  • He was apparently much surprised at the news.他对那个消息显然感到十分惊异。
29 transcending 9680d580945127111e648f229057346f     
超出或超越(经验、信念、描写能力等)的范围( transcend的现在分词 ); 优于或胜过…
  • She felt herself transcending time and space. 她感到自己正在穿越时空。
  • It'serves as a skeptical critic of the self-transcending element. 它对于超越自身因素起着一个怀疑论批评家的作用。
30 mere rC1xE     
  • That is a mere repetition of what you said before.那不过是重复了你以前讲的话。
  • It's a mere waste of time waiting any longer.再等下去纯粹是浪费时间。
31 erring a646ae681564dc63eb0b5a3cb51b588e     
  • Instead of bludgeoning our erring comrades, we should help them with criticism. 对犯错误的同志, 要批评帮助,不能一棍子打死。
  • She had too little faith in mankind not to know that they were erring. 她对男人们没有信心,知道他们总要犯错误的。 来自英汉文学 - 嘉莉妹妹
32 legitimate L9ZzJ     
  • Sickness is a legitimate reason for asking for leave.生病是请假的一个正当的理由。
  • That's a perfectly legitimate fear.怀有这种恐惧完全在情理之中。
33 deductions efdb24c54db0a56d702d92a7f902dd1f     
扣除( deduction的名词复数 ); 结论; 扣除的量; 推演
  • Many of the older officers trusted agents sightings more than cryptanalysts'deductions. 许多年纪比较大的军官往往相信特务的发现,而不怎么相信密码分析员的推断。
  • You know how you rush at things,jump to conclusions without proper deductions. 你知道你处理问题是多么仓促,毫无合适的演绎就仓促下结论。
34 interpretation P5jxQ     
  • His statement admits of one interpretation only.他的话只有一种解释。
  • Analysis and interpretation is a very personal thing.分析与说明是个很主观的事情。
35 revival UWixU     
  • The period saw a great revival in the wine trade.这一时期葡萄酒业出现了很大的复苏。
  • He claimed the housing market was showing signs of a revival.他指出房地产市场正出现复苏的迹象。
36 exegetical 8db712f2c96270db8aeab8e6d27edf8f     
  • So, It is necessary to analyse its exegetical value systematically. 因此,系统地分析出它的训诂价值是很有必要的。 来自互联网
37 epoch riTzw     
  • The epoch of revolution creates great figures.革命时代造就伟大的人物。
  • We're at the end of the historical epoch,and at the dawn of another.我们正处在一个历史时代的末期,另一个历史时代的开端。
38 systematic SqMwo     
  • The way he works isn't very systematic.他的工作不是很有条理。
  • The teacher made a systematic work of teaching.这个教师进行系统的教学工作。
39 ushering 3e092841cb6e76f98231ed1268254a5c     
v.引,领,陪同( usher的现在分词 )
  • They were right where the coach-caller was swinging open a coach-door and ushering in two ladies. "他们走到外面时,叫马车的服务员正打开车门,请两位小姐上车。 来自英汉文学 - 嘉莉妹妹
  • Immediately the two of them approached others, thanking them, ushering them out one by one. 他们俩马上走到其他人面前,向他们道谢,一个个送走了他们。 来自辞典例句
40 devout Qlozt     
adj.虔诚的,虔敬的,衷心的 (n.devoutness)
  • His devout Catholicism appeals to ordinary people.他对天主教的虔诚信仰感染了普通民众。
  • The devout man prayed daily.那位虔诚的男士每天都祈祷。
41 crucible EoYzZ     
  • The alliance had been forged in the crucible of war.这个联盟经受了战争的严峻考验。
  • Put the required amount of metal into the crucible.把适量的金属放入坩埚。
42 dross grRxk     
  • Caroline felt the value of the true ore,and knew the deception of the flashy dross.卡罗琳辨别出了真金的价值,知道那种炫耀的铁渣只有迷惑人的外表。
  • The best players go off to the big clubs,leaving us the dross.最好的队员都投奔大俱乐部去了,就只给我们剩下些不中用的人。
43 elimination 3qexM     
  • Their elimination from the competition was a great surprise.他们在比赛中遭到淘汰是个很大的意外。
  • I was eliminated from the 400 metres in the semi-finals.我在400米半决赛中被淘汰。
44 paramount fL9xz     
  • My paramount object is to save the Union and destroy slavery.我的最高目标是拯救美国,摧毁奴隶制度。
  • Nitrogen is of paramount importance to life on earth.氮对地球上的生命至关重要。
45 touching sg6zQ9     
  • It was a touching sight.这是一幅动人的景象。
  • His letter was touching.他的信很感人。
46 symbolically LrFwT     
  • By wearing the ring on the third finger of the left hand, a married couple symbolically declares their eternal love for each other. 将婚戒戴在左手的第三只手指上,意味着夫妻双方象征性地宣告他们的爱情天长地久,他们定能白头偕老。
  • Symbolically, he coughed to clear his throat. 周经理象征地咳一声无谓的嗽,清清嗓子。
47 virtue BpqyH     
  • He was considered to be a paragon of virtue.他被认为是品德尽善尽美的典范。
  • You need to decorate your mind with virtue.你应该用德行美化心灵。
48 remains 1kMzTy     
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
49 applied Tz2zXA     
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
50 thereby Sokwv     
  • I have never been to that city,,ereby I don't know much about it.我从未去过那座城市,因此对它不怎么熟悉。
  • He became a British citizen,thereby gaining the right to vote.他成了英国公民,因而得到了投票权。
51 salvation nC2zC     
  • Salvation lay in political reform.解救办法在于政治改革。
  • Christians hope and pray for salvation.基督教徒希望并祈祷灵魂得救。
52 immersion baIxf     
  • The dirt on the bottom of the bath didn't encourage total immersion.浴缸底有污垢,不宜全身浸泡于其中。
  • The wood had become swollen from prolonged immersion.因长时间浸泡,木头发胀了。
53 ordinance Svty0     
  • The Ordinance of 1785 provided the first land grants for educational purposes.1785年法案为教育目的提供了第一批土地。
  • The city passed an ordinance compelling all outdoor lighting to be switched off at 9.00 PM.该市通过一条法令强令晚上九点关闭一切室外照明。
54 conformity Hpuz9     
  • Was his action in conformity with the law?他的行动是否合法?
  • The plan was made in conformity with his views.计划仍按他的意见制定。
55 eternity Aiwz7     
  • The dull play seemed to last an eternity.这场乏味的剧似乎演个没完没了。
  • Finally,Ying Tai and Shan Bo could be together for all of eternity.英台和山伯终能双宿双飞,永世相随。
56 blessing UxDztJ     
  • The blessing was said in Hebrew.祷告用了希伯来语。
  • A double blessing has descended upon the house.双喜临门。
57 primal bB9yA     
  • Jealousy is a primal emotion.嫉妒是最原始的情感。
  • Money was a primal necessity to them.对于他们,钱是主要的需要。
58 motive GFzxz     
  • The police could not find a motive for the murder.警察不能找到谋杀的动机。
  • He had some motive in telling this fable.他讲这寓言故事是有用意的。
59 embodies 6b48da551d6920b8da8eb01ebc400297     
v.表现( embody的第三人称单数 );象征;包括;包含
  • The new treaty embodies the aspirations of most nonaligned countries. 新条约体现了大多数不结盟国家的愿望。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • This document embodies the concern of the government for the deformity. 这个文件体现了政府对残疾人的关怀。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
60 attained 1f2c1bee274e81555decf78fe9b16b2f     
(通常经过努力)实现( attain的过去式和过去分词 ); 达到; 获得; 达到(某年龄、水平、状况)
  • She has attained the degree of Master of Arts. 她已获得文学硕士学位。
  • Lu Hsun attained a high position in the republic of letters. 鲁迅在文坛上获得崇高的地位。
61 glorified 74d607c2a7eb7a7ef55bda91627eda5a     
  • The restaurant was no more than a glorified fast-food cafe. 这地方美其名曰餐馆,其实只不过是个快餐店而已。
  • The author glorified the life of the peasants. 那个作者赞美了农民的生活。
62 bondage 0NtzR     
  • Masters sometimes allowed their slaves to buy their way out of bondage.奴隶主们有时允许奴隶为自己赎身。
  • They aim to deliver the people who are in bondage to superstitious belief.他们的目的在于解脱那些受迷信束缚的人。
63 followers 5c342ee9ce1bf07932a1f66af2be7652     
追随者( follower的名词复数 ); 用户; 契据的附面; 从动件
  • the followers of Mahatma Gandhi 圣雄甘地的拥护者
  • The reformer soon gathered a band of followers round him. 改革者很快就获得一群追随者支持他。
64 heed ldQzi     
  • You must take heed of what he has told.你要注意他所告诉的事。
  • For the first time he had to pay heed to his appearance.这是他第一次非得注意自己的外表不可了。
65 slain slain     
杀死,宰杀,杀戮( slay的过去分词 ); (slay的过去分词)
  • The soldiers slain in the battle were burried that night. 在那天夜晚埋葬了在战斗中牺牲了的战士。
  • His boy was dead, slain by the hand of the false Amulius. 他的儿子被奸诈的阿缪利乌斯杀死了。
66 progenitors a94fd5bd89007bd4e14e8ea41b9af527     
n.祖先( progenitor的名词复数 );先驱;前辈;原本
  • The researchers also showed that the progenitors mature into neurons in Petri dishes. 研究人员还表示,在佩特里培养皿中的脑细胞前体可以发育成神经元。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 大脑与疾病
  • Though I am poor and wretched now, my progenitors were famously wealthy. 别看我现在穷困潦倒,我家上世可是有名的富翁。 来自互联网
67 propounded 3fbf8014080aca42e6c965ec77e23826     
v.提出(问题、计划等)供考虑[讨论],提议( propound的过去式和过去分词 )
  • the theory of natural selection, first propounded by Charles Darwin 查尔斯∙达尔文首先提出的物竞天择理论
  • Indeed it was first propounded by the ubiquitous Thomas Young. 实际上,它是由尽人皆知的杨氏首先提出来的。 来自辞典例句
68 binding 2yEzWb     
  • The contract was not signed and has no binding force. 合同没有签署因而没有约束力。
  • Both sides have agreed that the arbitration will be binding. 双方都赞同仲裁具有约束力。
69 fictitious 4kzxA     
  • She invented a fictitious boyfriend to put him off.她虚构出一个男朋友来拒绝他。
  • The story my mother told me when I was young is fictitious.小时候妈妈对我讲的那个故事是虚构的。
70 strenuous 8GvzN     
  • He made strenuous efforts to improve his reading. 他奋发努力提高阅读能力。
  • You may run yourself down in this strenuous week.你可能会在这紧张的一周透支掉自己。
71 exalt 4iGzV     
  • She thanked the President to exalt her.她感谢总统提拔她。
  • His work exalts all those virtues that we,as Americans,are taught to hold dear.他的作品颂扬了所有那些身为美国人应该珍视的美德。
72 exalted ztiz6f     
  • Their loveliness and holiness in accordance with their exalted station.他们的美丽和圣洁也与他们的崇高地位相称。
  • He received respect because he was a person of exalted rank.他因为是个地位崇高的人而受到尊敬。
73 repeal psVyy     
  • He plans to repeal a number of current policies.他计划废除一些当前的政策。
  • He has made out a strong case for the repeal of the law.他提出强有力的理由,赞成废除该法令。
74 investigators e970f9140785518a87fc81641b7c89f7     
n.调查者,审查者( investigator的名词复数 )
  • This memo could be the smoking gun that investigators have been looking for. 这份备忘录可能是调查人员一直在寻找的证据。
  • The team consisted of six investigators and two secretaries. 这个团队由六个调查人员和两个秘书组成。 来自《简明英汉词典》
75 theocratic d2a97031b61665441ee994e2c7847117     
  • The priest caste wields considerable power in this rigidly theocratic society. 祭司阶层(priestcaste)在这个严格的神权社会中掌握着相当大的权力。 来自互联网
  • The heartland of Islam, by contrast, is theocratic. 相反,伊斯兰教的核心地带则是神权政治。 来自互联网
76 theocracy XprwY     
  • Shangzhou was an important period for the formation and development of theocracy.商周时期是神权政治形成与发展的重要阶段。
  • The Muslim brothers look as if they will opt for civil society rather than theocracy.穆斯林兄弟看起来好像更适合文明的社会,而非神权统治。
77 disastrous 2ujx0     
  • The heavy rainstorm caused a disastrous flood.暴雨成灾。
  • Her investment had disastrous consequences.She lost everything she owned.她的投资结果很惨,血本无归。
78 coalescing b795440b9ade4378fef3486b241378bc     
v.联合,合并( coalesce的现在分词 )
  • A mental model begins coalescing in their minds. 一个意识模型开始结合到他们的脑子里。 来自互联网
  • On the basis of coalescing this kind of element can separate oil from compressed air. 采用凝聚原理,分离压缩空气中的油份。 来自互联网
79 gambling ch4xH     
  • They have won a lot of money through gambling.他们赌博赢了很多钱。
  • The men have been gambling away all night.那些人赌了整整一夜。
80 agitators bf979f7155ba3c8916323b6166aa76b9     
n.(尤指政治变革的)鼓动者( agitator的名词复数 );煽动者;搅拌器;搅拌机
  • The mud is too viscous, you must have all the agitators run. 泥浆太稠,你们得让所有的搅拌机都开着。 来自辞典例句
  • Agitators urged the peasants to revolt/revolution. 煽动者怂恿农民叛变(革命)。 来自辞典例句
81 slough Drhyo     
  • He was not able to slough off the memories of the past.他无法忘记过去。
  • A cicada throws its slough.蝉是要蜕皮的。
82 supremacy 3Hzzd     
  • No one could challenge her supremacy in gymnastics.她是最优秀的体操运动员,无人能胜过她。
  • Theoretically,she holds supremacy as the head of the state.从理论上说,她作为国家的最高元首拥有至高无上的权力。
83 creed uoxzL     
  • They offended against every article of his creed.他们触犯了他的每一条戒律。
  • Our creed has always been that business is business.我们的信条一直是公私分明。
84 immorality 877727a0158f319a192e0d1770817c46     
n. 不道德, 无道义
  • All the churchmen have preached against immorality. 所有牧师都讲道反对不道德的行为。
  • Where the European sees immorality and lawlessness, strict law rules in reality. 在欧洲人视为不道德和无规则的地方,事实上都盛行着一种严格的规则。 来自英汉非文学 - 家庭、私有制和国家的起源
85 perusal mM5xT     
  • Peter Cooke undertook to send each of us a sample contract for perusal.彼得·库克答应给我们每人寄送一份合同样本供阅读。
  • A perusal of the letters which we have published has satisfied him of the reality of our claim.读了我们的公开信后,他终于相信我们的要求的确是真的。
86 wondrous pfIyt     
  • The internal structure of the Department is wondrous to behold.看一下国务院的内部结构是很有意思的。
  • We were driven across this wondrous vast land of lakes and forests.我们乘车穿越这片有着湖泊及森林的广袤而神奇的土地。
87 embodying 6e759eac57252cfdb6d5d502ccc75f4b     
v.表现( embody的现在分词 );象征;包括;包含
  • Every instrument constitutes an independent contract embodying a payment obligation. 每张票据都构成一份独立的体现支付义务的合同。 来自口语例句
  • Fowth, The aesthetical transcendency and the beauty embodying the man's liberty. \" 第四部分:审美的超越和作为人类自由最终体现的“美”。 来自互联网
88 strife NrdyZ     
  • We do not intend to be drawn into the internal strife.我们不想卷入内乱之中。
  • Money is a major cause of strife in many marriages.金钱是造成很多婚姻不和的一个主要原因。
89 creeds 6087713156d7fe5873785720253dc7ab     
(尤指宗教)信条,教条( creed的名词复数 )
  • people of all races, colours and creeds 各种种族、肤色和宗教信仰的人
  • Catholics are agnostic to the Protestant creeds. 天主教徒对于新教教义来说,是不可知论者。
90 persecution PAnyA     
n. 迫害,烦扰
  • He had fled from France at the time of the persecution. 他在大迫害时期逃离了法国。
  • Their persecution only serves to arouse the opposition of the people. 他们的迫害只激起人民对他们的反抗。
91 attainment Dv3zY     
  • We congratulated her upon her attainment to so great an age.我们祝贺她高寿。
  • The attainment of the success is not easy.成功的取得并不容易。


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